Table 3.

Results of probing rRNA extracted from aquarium biofilms with nucleic acid probes for NOB

Sample labelAquarium environmentaBiofilm substratebDaily ammonia amtcAmmonia sourcedSignal with the following oligonucleotide probese,f:
710rFreshwaterPolyfiber32.1 mMNH4Cl+++
711rFreshwaterPolyfiber32.1 mMNH4Cl+++
T825FreshwaterPolypp0.8 gFish+++
T825FreshwaterGravel0.8 gFish+++
WDF1036FreshwaterPolypp3.2 gFish+++
WDF1036FreshwaterGravel3.2 gFish+++
WDF1026FreshwaterPolypp2.0 gFish+++
WDF1039FreshwaterGravel3.2 gFish+++
WDF1038FreshwaterSponge2.0 gFish+++
WDF1035FreshwaterPolypp2.0 gFish+++
FLRT6FreshwaterGravel2.0 gFish+++
EXP8BFreshwaterPolypp1.4 gFish+++
FWSW4FreshwaterPolypp5 mMNH4Cl+++
FWSW6FreshwaterPolypp5 mMNH4Cl+++
BC2-8FreshwaterGravel5 mMNH4Cl+++
BC2-10FreshwaterGravel5 mMNH4Cl+++
BC2-12FreshwaterGravel5 mMNH4Cl+++
BC2-13FreshwaterGravel5 mMNH4Cl+++
BC2-16FreshwaterGravel5 mMNH4Cl+++
BC2-4FreshwaterGravel2.0 gFish+++
BC2-16aFreshwaterGravel2.0 gFish+++
714rSeawaterPolyfiber714 mMNH4Cl++
715rSeawaterPolyfiber714 mMNH4Cl+++
FWSW2SeawaterPolypp5 mMNH4Cl++
FWSW3SeawaterPolypp5 mMNH4Cl++
FWSW8SeawaterPolypp5 mMNH4Cl++
FWSW9SeawaterPolypp5 mMNH4Cl++
  • a Type of aquarium water.

  • b Media from which the bacterial cells were extracted, Polypp, polypropylene.

  • c Fish, the aquarium had a fish population and ammonia was generated by the fish; NH4Cl, the tank had no fish and the ammonia was from daily dosing with ammonium chloride.

  • d Values in grams are the amounts of fish feed put into the aquarium each day; molar or millimolar values are the concentrations of ammonia added to the aquarium or system in which the biofilter was located each day.

  • e +, signal detected by probe; −, no signal detected.

  • f S-*-Nbac-1017-a-A-20 was originally called NBAC2 (9) and targeted N. winogradskyi andN. agilis. Probe S-G-Ntspa-0685-a-A-22 targeted N. marina, N. moscoviensis, and clone 710-9. Probe S-*-Ntspa-0454-a-A-19 targeted N. moscoviensis and clone 710-9.