TABLE 3.

Mean sunlight inactivation parameters for indicators from WSP effluent and raw sewage in fresh (river) watera

IndicatorEffluentkS (m2 MJ−1) (n; CV%)bnSS90 (MJ m−2)T90 (h)
SummerWinterSummerWinterSummerWinterSummerWinter
Fecal coliformsWSP0.086 (42; 30)0.084 (20; 15)1.31.126.927.48.816.8
RS0.275 (22; 23)0.216 (7; 20)3.81.48.410.73.37.7
E. coliWSP0.078 (41; 44)0.073 (22; 14)1.11.029.431.69.220.3
RS0.287 (22; 38)0.237 (7; 19)4.82.08.09.73.36.9
EnterococciWSP0.276 (39; 30)0.110 (21; 19)1.31.08.421.03.014.5
RS0.137 (21; 35)0.138 (7; 13)2.41.616.816.76.412.6
Somatic coliphagesWSP0.077 (50; 19)0.049 (25; 20)NANA30.046.711.630.6
RS0.098 (27; 29)0.087 (9; 20)NANA23.426.48.315.9
F-RNA phagesWSP0.070 (43; 25)0.050 (18; 11)NANA32.845.713.327.5
RS0.075 (26; 18)0.074 (9; 10)NANA30.930.812.519.1
  • a The insolation received during the 8-h experiments ranged from 7 to 15 MJ m−2 in winter and from 17 to 26 MJ m−2 in summer. WSP, WSP effluent; RS, raw sewage; NA, not applicable.

  • b The kS values were calculated from the combined loge percent survival plots and are divided into summer and winter values (the combined values, where applicable, are given in Fig. 2). For each kS value, the number of samples (n) and the coefficient of variation (CV%) are given in parentheses.

  • c nS is the shoulder size.