Table 1.

Analysis of water for microsporidia by IFA, PCR, and sequencinga

Sample typeResult of:SpeciesbAccession no.cScored% SimilarityePf
IFAPCR
Raw sewage++Encephalitozoon(Septata)intestinalisL39113391971e-107
Tertiary effluentg++Encephalitozoon(Septata)intestinalisL39113418981e-115
Tertiary effluentg++V. corneaegb U11046376981e-90
Tertiary effluentg+ndndndndnd
Surface waterh+ndndndndnd
Surface waterh++Encephalitozoon(Septata)intestinalisU09929289969e-77
Surface waterhnd+Encephalitozoon(Septata)intestinalisU39113391971e-98
Surface waterind+Enterocytozoon bieneusiL16868363986e-99
Controlj++Encephalitozoon(Septata)intestinalisU39297307982e-82
Controljnd+ndndndndnd
Groundwater+Encephalitozoon(Septata)intestinalisU39297365961e-85
Groundwaterk+ndndndndnd
Groundwaterk+ndndndndnd
Groundwaterk+ndndndndnd
Groundwaterk+ndndndndnd
Groundwaterk+ndndndndnd
  • a Results of PCR sequencing and species determination of microsporidia by using computer database homology searching. This method matches the unknown sequence with its closest relative in sequence databases. Similar sequences are ranked in order of highest homology and given statistical scores based on this homology. nd, not determined.

  • b Species with the highest homology to the unknown sequence.

  • c Accession number of the sequence with highest homology to the unknown sequence.

  • d Ranking score given to the sequence with highest homology.

  • e Percent base-to-base similarity between unknown and homologous sequences. It should be noted that in almost every instance the bases missed were due to a call of N by the sequencing program.

  • f P, probability (on a scale of 0 to 1) that the sequence identified occurred by chance.

  • g Activated sludge followed by pressure filtration through mixed-medium filters and extended chlorination.

  • h Impacted with tertiary wastewater effluent.

  • i No impact with discharged domestic wastewater.

  • j Control, groundwater samples seeded withEncephalitozoon intestinalis spores.

  • k Potentially impacted by surface wastewater infiltration.