Table 1.

Microbial strains and plasmids used in this study

Strain or plasmidGenotype or constructReference or source
Escherichia coliDH5αF′ endA1 hsdR17 (rKmK+) supE44 thi-1 recA1 gyrA(Nalr)relA1 Δ(laclZYA-argF)U169 deoR[F80dlac DE(lacZ)M15]GIBCO-BRL/Life Technologies
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 Laboratory strains
  ISP15MATa his3 leu2 trp1 ura3 STA219
  FY10MATaleu2 ura341
 Industrial strains
  VIN7Commercial wine yeast strainAnchor Yeast, Cape Town, South Africa
  VIN13Commercial wine yeast strainAnchor Yeast, Cape Town, South Africa
  WE228Commercial wine yeast strainAnchor Yeast, Cape Town, South Africa
 Transformants
  ISP15(pATF1-m)PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
  FY10(pATF1-m)PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
  VIN7(pATF1-s)SMR1-410 PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
  VIN13(pATF1-s)SMR1-410 PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
  WE228(pATF1-s)SMR1-410 PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
Plasmids
 pHVX2bla LEU2 PGK1P-PGK1T40
 pPGK1bla LEU2 PGK1P-PGK1TThis study
 pPATX2bla LEU2 PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
 pATF1-mbla LEU2 PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
 pATF1-sbla LEU2 SMR1-410 PGK1P-ATF1-PGK1TThis study
 pYIpLac128bla LEU214
 pWX509bla SMR1-4104
 pBR322-ACT1bla ACT113