Table 5.

Levels of bacteriophages of B. fragilisand F-specific phages in urban sewage of different countries

CountryBacteriophage level (PFU/ml) of:
B. fragilisHSP40B. fragilis RYC2056S. typhimurium WG49a
The Netherlands1  4.6 × 102 5.1 × 103
The Netherlands2.67.7 × 102 7.6 × 103
Ireland1.43.0 × 102 4.6 × 103
Ireland1.64.4 × 102 6.9 × 103
Austria8.58.1 × 102 1.6 × 103
Austria0.56.1 × 102 2.2 × 103
Portugal0.41.8 × 102 1.8 × 104
Portugal0.11.0 × 102 3.8 × 104
Portugal0  1.0 × 102 5.5 × 103
Germany2.27.8 × 102 4.8 × 103
Germany1.36.0 × 102 2.2 × 103
Sweden0.92.2 × 101 1.9 × 103
France3.1 × 101 2.3 × 102 1.2 × 103
South Africa1.1 × 102 1.8 × 102 1.2 × 104
South Africa4.5 × 102 NDb 5.9 × 104
South Africa1.2 × 102 5.4 × 102 1.7 × 104
South Africa2.3 × 102 5.0 × 102 2.4 × 104
  • a Host strain for F-specific bacteriophages.

  • b ND, not done.