Table 1.

Presence of members of subgroups in environmental samples

Source locationaSource typeSample typebpHReaction with primerc:
 Sunset Crater, Ariz.VolcanicCinders7.1++++
 Sunset Crater, Ariz.Pinyon rhizosphereCinders7.1++++
 Cosnino, Ariz.Pinyon woodlandSandy loam7.6++++
 Cosnino, Ariz.Pinyon rhizosphereSandy loam7.3++++
 Las Cruces, N. Mex.Chile fieldSandy loam7.4++++
 Raleigh, N.C.MeadowClay loam4.5++++
 Elk River, Minn.Garden “black soil”Organic6.5++++
 Paineville, OhioAgriculturalSandy loam6.8++++
 Elk River, Minn.Aged cow manureOrganic6.1++++
 Oslo, NorwayBoreal forestOrganicNDd ++/−++
 Antelope Valley, Calif.Citrus groveSandy loam6.1+++
 Dugway, UtahSemiarid desertSandy clay loam7.7+++
 Elk River, Minn.Gravel pit “white peat”Silt organic7.2+++/−
 Niceville, Fla.Pine forestSandy3.1++
 Poncha Pass, Colo.Roadside fillSandy2.5++
 Berkeley Heights, N.J.Hardwood forestOrganic4.0++
 OhioCranberry bogMuck; rifle peat5.4+/−+
 Wilmington, N.C.Coastal pine forestSandy loam3.2+
Sediments and mats
 Los Alamos, N. Mex.Marsh (anaerobic)Organic6.5++++
 Abiquiu, N. Mex.River (anaerobic)OrganicND++/−++/−
 Los Alamos, N. Mex.Shallow lakeOrganic5.8+++
 Santa Rosa I., Fla.Shallow marineSandy7.4++/−
 Pine Barrens, N.J.Cedar swampOrganicAcidic+
 Pine Barrens, N.J.Hardwood forestStreambedAcidic+
 YNP71°C hot springSediment7++
 YNP67°C hot springMat7+
 YNP64°C hot springMat7+
 YNP67°C hot springMat9
 YNP77°C hot springSediment8
 YNP75°C hot springSediment7
 YNP72°C hot springSediment1
 YNP70°C hot springMat4
 YNP18°C springMat1.5
Other samples
 Minneapolis, Minn.Horse, pig, ostrichFecesND
 North Central Pacific OceanWaterMarine snowND
 North Central Pacific OceanWaterPicoplanktonND
 Dugway, UtahAerosolFiltrateND
 Los Alamos, N. Mex.AerosolFiltrateND
 Albuquerque, N. Mex.AerosolFiltrateND
 Artesia, N. Mex.AerosolFiltrateND
 White Sands, N. Mex.AerosolFiltrateND
 Lechugilla Cave, N. Mex.Cave wall rockCorrosion residueND
  • a YNP, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. Additional source information available from the authors upon request.

  • b Mat, photosynthetic microbial mat. Marine snow and picoplankton samples are described in reference34; the cave corrosion residue is described in reference 6.

  • c +, visible PCR product band present on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel; +/−, faint band present, or visible band present only in reamplification reactions; −, no product band of correct size visible in any reaction.

  • d ND, not determined.