Table 3.

Phenotypic characteristics of isolated strains indicative of large culturable populationsa

CharacteristicStrain PB90-1Strain PB90-3Strain PB90-2Strain XB45Strain XB90Strain SB90Strain SB45Strain PB90-4Strain PB90-5
Cell formOval, rodOvalOval, rodOvalRodCurved rodRodRodOval
Cell length (μm)1–31–20.8–2.50.8–2.52–162–52.5–142–42–3
Cell width (μm)0.6–0.80.90.5–0.80.7–0.80.7–1.40.5–0.60.5–0.6 0.9 0.9
Aggregate formationChainsIrregular clumps
Motility+++++++
Gram stain reaction±++ND
Lysis in 3% (wt/vol) KOH+++++
G+C content (mol%)73.7ND40.241.240.835.545.670.772.9
Product from NO3 NO2 NUNO2 NUNO2 NUNUNUNU
Aerobic growth+++
Urease activity+
Esculin hydrolysis+++++++
Indole production+++
Major products from glucoseb A,PS,A,PA,PS,A,PA,PA,PA,PA,PL,F,A,E
Growth with:
 Maltose+++++++
 Cellobiose, glucose, galactose+++++++++
 Fructose+++++++
 Xylose+++++++
 Arabinose, starch++++++++
 Galacturonic acid++++
 Cellulose, lactate
 Xylan++++++
 Pectin+++++++
 Arabinogalactan++
 Pyruvate+++++
 Malate+++
Taxonc Verrucomicrobia Verrucomicrobia CFB groupCFB groupClostridial cluster XIVaClostridial cluster IX Bacillusspp. Actinobacteria Actinobacteria
  • a All nine strains gave negative results in catalase and oxidase activity tests and in gelatin hydrolysis tests. +, positive, −, negative; ±, variable; ND, not determined; NU, nitrate not utilized.

  • b The mean final concentrations (as determined in triplicate experiments) were >1.5 mM. Abbreviations: A, acetate; E, ethanol; F, formate; L, lactate; P, propionate; S, succinate.

  • c Taxon designations as in Table 2.