Table 1.

Strains used and their hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylation and reduction activities

StrainOriginpdc GenBank accession no.% Identity with referencepdcaDecarboxylation activitybReduction activityb
NPUV spectroscopyHPLC
PCAcFAdPCAcFAdPCA and FAe4-VP4-VG
L. brevis113ScotlandAF2571648189+NDNDNDNDND
L. crispatusH8JapanAF2571599992++++++
L. fermentum70ScotlandAF257162100100++
L. hilgardii84ScotlandAF2571588088NDNDNDNDND
L. paracasei69ScotlandAF257160100100++
L. pentosus128ScotlandAF25716199100++++++++
L. plantarum72ScotlandAF257163100100++++++++++
  • a The reference pdc gene was from L. plantarum (accession no. U63827 ). N, nucleotide sequence; P, protein sequence.

  • b ++, high quantity of products (35 to 95 μg/ml) detected by HPLC, high level of change (e.g., Fig. 2A) in UV spectroscopy; +, medium quantity (5 to 35 μg/ml) of products detected by HPLC and some level of change (e.g., Fig. 2B) in UV spectroscopy; −, low quantity (0 to 5 μg/ml) of products detected by HPLC and no change in level of UV spectroscopy. ND, not determined.

  • c Cultures were exposed to 100 μg of PCA per ml.

  • d Cultures were exposed to 100 μg of FA per ml.

  • e Cultures were exposed to PCA and FA each at 50 μg/ml.