Table 1.

Samples used in this study

Collection siteHabitatSampleWater depth (m)No. (date) of diveManned submersible or unmanned ROVaInstrument used for collectionReference(s)
Kremlin site, TAG mound, Mid-Atlantic; 26°08.212′ N; 44°49.611′ WHydrothermal ventFragments of sulfide anhydrite chimney3,655433 (May 1998) Shinkai 6500 Submersible's manipulator16
Mid-Okinawa Trough; 27° 47.220′ N; 126°53.906′ EHydrothermal ventVent mussel,Bathymodiolus sp.1,035416 (April 1999)ROVDolphin 3K Submersible's manipulator34
Hydrothermal vent water collected in vicinity of mussel colonyvan Dorn water sampler
Sagami Trough; 35°59.9′ N; 139°13.6′ EBathyal seepTubeworm,Lamellibrachia sp.1,1991,144 (October 1999) Shinkai 2000 Submersible's manipulator33, 59
Sediment collected around tubeworm colonyPush-core sampler
Japan Trench; 40°02.85′ N; 144°16.50′ EHadal seepReducing sediment7,434112 (April 1999)ROVKaiko Push-core sampler15
Northern Okushiri Ridge; 44°14′ N; 139°46.200′ EPossible seepReducing sediment1,7091,125 (August 1999) Shinkai 2000 Push-core sampler45
  • a All submersibles were provided by JAMSTEC.