Table 1.

Lactobacillus strains tested, their origins, their capacities to express TDCA hydrolase and TCA hydrolase activities, and their capacities to resist toxicity of TDCA

GroupLactobacillus species or subspeciesaStrainbOriginTDCA hydrolase activitycTCA Hydrolase activitydResistance to TDCA toxicitye
Human isolatesL. acidophilusATCC 4356HumanPPR
ATCC 4357HumanPPR
ATCC 53544InfantPPR
JCM 1028IntestinePPA
JCM 1034IntestinePPR
JCM 1229IntestinePPS
L. amylovorusJCM 2125IntestinePPS
JCM 5811FecesPPA
L. brevisATCC 14869FecesNNR
BCCM 7944FecesPPR
L. buchneriJCM 1068IntestineNNR
JCM 1069IntestinePNR
L. crispatusJCM 8778FecesPPS
JCM 8779FecesPPS
BCCM 12003Infant fecesPPR
L. fermentumATCC 11976InfantPPR
ATCC 23271IntestineNNR
L. gasseriATCC 19992FecesNNS
JCM 1025IntestinePPA
BCCM 9203HumanPPA
L. johnsoniiJCM 1022IntestinePPS
JCM 8791FecesPPA
L. paracasei subsp.paracaseiATCC 27092FecesNNS
JCM 1109IntestineNNS
L. reuteriATCC 23272FecesPPR
BCCM 13046FecesPPR
L. rhamnosusBCCM 10770Bowel drainNNS
L. ruminisATCC 25644IntestinePPR
NDfATCC 11146Infant fecesNNS
ATCC 53103FecesNNS
Dairy isolatesL. acidophilusBCCM 8151Acidophilus milk0NR
L. brevisBCCM 11998Dairy starterPPR
BCCM 18022Zabady (yogurt)PPR
L. curvatus subsp. curvatusBCCM 9198MilkNNS
L. delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricusATCC 11842Bulgarian yogurt0NS
BCCM 12168Homemade yogurt0NR
DSM 20080Yogurt0NS
L. kefirBCCM 9480Kefir grainsNPA
L. maltaromicusBCCM 6903Raw milkNNR
L. paracasei subsp. paracaseiBCCM 11407MilkNNS
L. plantarumBCCM 18021MilkPPR
BCCM 18027Laban RayebPPR
BCCM 18035MilkNNR
L. rhamnosusBCCM 18028Laban RayebNNA
BCCM 18030Zabady (yogurt)NNR
Other isolatesL. acidophilusATCC 700396 (= NCK 1070)UnknownPPR
L. fermentumBCCM 6902Fermented beetsNNS
DSM 20050UnknownNNR
L. gasseriNCK 99UnknownPPS
  • a The species or subspecies as determined by the culture collection was assumed to be correct.

  • b ATCC, American Type Culture Collection; JCM, Japanese Collection of Microorganisms; BCCM, Belgian Coordinated Collection of Microorganisms; DSM, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH; NCK, Todd Klaenhammer, North Carolina State University.

  • c Capacity to express TDCA hydrolase activity as detected when precipitates of deoxycholic acid appeared below bacterial colonies growing on MRS-TDCA. P, positive; N, negative; 0, no growth.

  • d Capacity to express TCA hydrolase activity as detected when [14C]cholic acid could be extracted from supernatant solutions of Lactobacillus cultures in MRS medium containing [14C]TCA. P, positive; N, negative.

  • e Estimated by examining bacterial populations growing for 0, 1, 5, and 10 h in MRS containing TDCA at concentrations of at 0, 1, 3 and 5 mM (see Materials and Methods). R, resistant; S, sensitive; A, ambiguous (statistical analysis was not able to resolve resistance or sensitivity, the result was ambiguous [see Table 2]).

  • f ND, not determined.