Table 1.

Comparison of the effect of injecting or force-feeding B. thuringiensis toxins in L. dispar larvae

ToxinED50 in the hemolymph (ng/0.2 g fresh wt)aFFD50(ng/larva)b
Cry1Aa>50056.2
Cry1Ab>50022.0
Cry1AcNS2,484.0
Cry1C44.4948.0
Cry1ENS>696.0
  • a ED50, the effective dose that caused a 50% reduction of the relative growth upon injection. NS, not sensitive.

  • b The 50% frass failure dose (FFD50), as determined with force-feeding bioassays as described by van Frankenhuyzen et al. (12, 13), is shown.