Table 1.

Bacterial strains, plasmids, and phages

Strain, plasmid, or phageRelevant characteristicsaSource or reference
Strain
L. lactis subsp.lactis
  LL51-1Industrial strain, lac + prt +Nisr DSM Food Specialties
  LM0230 lac prt plasmid-free derivative of c210
  LM0230Smr Smr derivative of LM02308
L. lactis subsp. cremorisUL825
E. coli NM522Transformation host17
Plasmids
 pDL278Specr E. coli-L. lactis shuttle vector (6.6 kb)21
 pND001Native plasmid of LL51-1, 75 kbThis study
 pND0025.2-kb HindIII fragment from pND001 cloned into pDL278This study
 pND003 BamHI deletion of pND002 (abiU1 deletion)This study
 pND006 abiU2 deletion of pND002This study
Phage
 φ712Small isometric-headed phage, 936 species propagated on LM023014
 φc2Prolate-headed phage, c2 species propagated on LM023012
 φul36Small isometric-headed phage, P335 species propagated on UL825
  • a Specr, Nisr, and Smr, spectinomycin, nisin, and streptomycin resistance, respectively.