Table 1.

Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from stems of wild rice and cultivated rice

StrainClose relatives based on 16S rRNAa (percent homology)Rice genotypebRice stagecPutative endophytic featuresd
MotilityPectinaseCellulase
B65 Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans (99.6) O. barthii W1407Tillage+++
B501 Herbaspirillum seropedicae(99.6) O. officinalisW0012Tillage+++
B512 Herbaspirillum seropedicae (99.8) O. rufipogonW1989Tillage+++
B508-1 Ideonella dechloratans (99.5) O. sativaSC41MTN+++
B511 Ideonella dechloratans (99.5) O. sativaKasalathTillage++
B513 Ideonella dechloratans (99.5) O. sativaSC41Tillage+++
B509 Enterobacter cancerogenus (99.2) O. rufipogonW1989MTN+++
B52 Azospirillum lipoferum(97.1) O. glandiglumisW1194Tillage+++
B506 Azosprillum brasilense (95.2) O. rufipogonW1989MTN+++
B510 Azospirillum lipoferum (96.6) O. sativaNipponbareTillage+++
B518 Azospirillum lipoferum(98.1) O. sativaKasalathMTN+++
  • a Percentage of homology between 16S rDNA sequences of each strain to that of close relatives.

  • b O. sativa cultivars SC41 (Gerndjah Benton), Kasalath, and Nipponbare are classified asjavanica (tropical japonica), indica, and japonica types of cultivated rice. Other species are wild rice.

  • c Rice stages are expressed as maximum-tiller-number (MTN) and tillage stages.

  • d Production of pectinase and cellulase and motility were assayed, because these traits are common features of endophytic bacteria from rice (9).