TABLE 1.

Bacterial phylotypes identified by culturing and culture-independent analysis of third-instar gypsy moth midguts based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis

Sequence identy and identification methodBacterial divisionGenus (≥95% identity)Database matches (≥98% identity)Detection in gypsy moth fed ona:
Artificial dietLarchWillowAspenWhite oak
Identified by culturing and culture-independent analysis
    NAB1γ-Proteobacteria Pseudomonas P. putida 1.8 × 1051.1 × 1073.6 × 1053.5 × 105
    NAB2γ-Proteobacteria Pseudomonas 2.2 × 106
    NAB3γ-Proteobacteria Enterobacter Uncultured soil bacterium F42326.14.8 × 1067.0 × 1078.9 × 107
    NAB4γ-Proteobacteria Pantoea P. agglomerans 2.5 × 1053.7 × 1041.5 × 107
    NAB5γ-Proteobacteria Serratia S. marcescens 4.6 × 1047.5 × 1084.0 × 104
    NAB6low G+C gram positive Bacillus 4.0 × 108
    NAB7low G+C gram positive Staphylococcus S. lentus 8.1 × 1049.1 × 1064.5 × 106
    NAB8low G+C gram positive Staphylococcus S. cohnii 2.9 × 1064.7 × 1061.3 × 107
    NAB9low G+C gram positive Staphylococcus S. xylosus 1.3 × 1061.07 × 105
    NAB10low G+C gram positive Paenibacillus 2.6 × 106
    NAB11low G+C gram positive Enterococcus E. faecalis 1.5 × 1081.9 × 1063.6 × 1081.4 × 1042.1 × 107
    NAB12low G+C gram positive Enterococcus 4.8 × 1074.1 × 1062.4 × 105
    NAB13 Actinobacterium group Rhodococcus 1.2 × 107
    NAB14 Actinobacterium group Microbacterium 5.2 × 1082.2 × 106
    NAB15 CFB b group7.4 × 104
Identified by culture-independent analysis only
    NAB16α-Proteobacteria Agrobacterium +++
    NAB17γ-Proteobacteria Enterobacter +++++
    NAB3γ-Proteobacteria Enterobacter +
    NAB18γ-Proteobacteria++
    NAB19γ-Proteobacteria++
    NAB20low G+C gram positive+++
    NAB21 Actinobacterium group Micrococcus +
    NAB22 Actinobacterium group+
    NAB23 CFB group+
  • a For cultured cells the numbers represent the average population of phylotype based on colony morphology in 20 individual larvae per treatment (CFU/milliliter of gut material). For noncultured samples, a plus indicates presence in guts of insects in diet treatment.

  • b CFB, Cytophaga/Flavobacteria/Bacteroides.