TABLE 1.

Bacterial phylotypes identified by culturing and culture-independent analysis of third-instar gypsy moth midguts based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis

Sequence identy and identification methodBacterial divisionGenus (≥95% identity)Database matches (≥98% identity)Detection in gypsy moth fed ona:
Artificial dietLarchWillowAspenWhite oak
Identified by culturing and culture-independent analysis
    NAB1γ-ProteobacteriaPseudomonasP. putida1.8 × 1051.1 × 1073.6 × 1053.5 × 105
    NAB2γ-ProteobacteriaPseudomonas2.2 × 106
    NAB3γ-ProteobacteriaEnterobacterUncultured soil bacterium F42326.14.8 × 1067.0 × 1078.9 × 107
    NAB4γ-ProteobacteriaPantoeaP. agglomerans2.5 × 1053.7 × 1041.5 × 107
    NAB5γ-ProteobacteriaSerratiaS. marcescens4.6 × 1047.5 × 1084.0 × 104
    NAB6low G+C gram positiveBacillus4.0 × 108
    NAB7low G+C gram positiveStaphylococcusS. lentus8.1 × 1049.1 × 1064.5 × 106
    NAB8low G+C gram positiveStaphylococcusS. cohnii2.9 × 1064.7 × 1061.3 × 107
    NAB9low G+C gram positiveStaphylococcusS. xylosus1.3 × 1061.07 × 105
    NAB10low G+C gram positivePaenibacillus2.6 × 106
    NAB11low G+C gram positiveEnterococcusE. faecalis1.5 × 1081.9 × 1063.6 × 1081.4 × 1042.1 × 107
    NAB12low G+C gram positiveEnterococcus4.8 × 1074.1 × 1062.4 × 105
    NAB13Actinobacterium groupRhodococcus1.2 × 107
    NAB14Actinobacterium groupMicrobacterium5.2 × 1082.2 × 106
    NAB15CFBb group7.4 × 104
Identified by culture-independent analysis only
    NAB16α-ProteobacteriaAgrobacterium+++
    NAB17γ-ProteobacteriaEnterobacter+++++
    NAB3γ-ProteobacteriaEnterobacter+
    NAB18γ-Proteobacteria++
    NAB19γ-Proteobacteria++
    NAB20low G+C gram positive+++
    NAB21Actinobacterium groupMicrococcus+
    NAB22Actinobacterium group+
    NAB23CFB group+
  • a For cultured cells the numbers represent the average population of phylotype based on colony morphology in 20 individual larvae per treatment (CFU/milliliter of gut material). For noncultured samples, a plus indicates presence in guts of insects in diet treatment.

  • b CFB, Cytophaga/Flavobacteria/Bacteroides.