TABLE 1.

Characteristics of stream water sampling sites, 2002 to 2003

Stream water siteaStream flow conditionbLand usePotential sources of fecal contaminationcDrainage area (square miles)Population density (people/square mile)Stream flow at time of sampling (cubic feet/s)f
Alabama 1ElevatedMixed (agricultural and forest)Feedlots and septic systems37433,000163
Alabama 2adElevatedAgriculturalFree-range cattle and septic systems292,10036
Alabama 2bdElevatedAgriculturalFree-range cattle and septic systems292,10044
Colorado 1eEffluentAgriculturalCAFOs, applied manure, wildlife, and septic systems5675.9NA
Colorado 2ElevatedMixed (forest, rangeland, agricultural, and urban)WWTPs, CAFOs, applied manure, and wildlife9,598300628
Georgia 1BaseMixed (urban, forest, and agricultural)Large urban WWTP and combined-sewer overflows2,0606901,140
Georgia 1HighMixed (urban, forest, and agricultural)Large urban WWTP and combined-sewer overflows2,0606908,400
Georgia 2HighUrban residentialSeptic systems292,100183
IndianaElevatedAgriculturalCows, septic systems, and WWTPs61061142
IowadBaseAgriculturalHog CAFOs and manure2301648
IowadHighAgriculturalHog CAFOs and manure23016967
LouisianadBaseUrban residential and commercialWWTP and combined-sewer overflows153,0002.2
LouisianadElevatedUrban residential and commercialWWTP and combined-sewer overflows153,00020
NebraskaHighAgriculturalFeedlots and septic systems36911153
NebraskaBaseAgriculturalFeedlots and septic systems3691123
OhioElevatedAgriculturalCows and WWTPs310130209
OhioHighAgriculturalCows and WWTPs310130668
South Carolina 1BaseAgriculturalCAFOs232107.4
South Carolina 1ElevatedAgriculturalCAFOs2321015
South Carolina 2ElevatedUrbanWWTPs, street runoff, and raw sewage601,80065
TexasElevatedMixed (urban and agricultural)WWTPs, street runoff, and raw sewage6,2784104,030
TexasBaseMixed (urban and agricultural)WWTPs, street runoff, and raw sewage6,278410340
Virginia 1BaseUrban residential and commercialWildlife, recreation, and WWTPs24110,0002.2
Virginia 2dElevatedAgriculturalFeedlots and septic systems1411014
Washington 1adBaseAgriculturalDairy CAFOs and applied manure624953
Washington 1bdBaseAgriculturalDairy CAFOs and applied manure624938
Washington 2HighUrban residential and commercialWWTPs, street runoff, and wildlife125,60031
Wisconsin 1HighAgriculturalSeptic systems, dairy farms, and WWTPs9685155
Wisconsin 2BaseMixed (urban and agricultural)Septic systems, feedlots, applied manure, and WWTPs69652088
Wisconsin 2HighMixed (urban and agricultural)Septic systems, feedlots, applied manure, and WWTPs696520993
  • a If two sites were in the same state, they are labeled as state 1 and state 2. If two samples were collected at the same site and streamflow category, they are labeled as “a” and “b.”

  • b High, streamflow was greater than 90% of all measured streamflows at that site; elevated, streamflow was between 50 and 90% of all measured streamflows at that site; base, streamflow was less than 50% of all measured streamflows at that site.

  • c CAFO, concentrated animal feeding operation; WWTP, wastewater treatment plant.

  • d Ten-year period of record data was not available, so streamflow categories were estimated.

  • e Sample was collected from a drainage ditch on a cattle feedlot.

  • f NA, not applicable.