TABLE 3.

Red fluorescent protein derivatives tested

ProteinRelevant characteristicsSource or reference
DsRed2Tetramer, 6 amino acid substitutionsaClontech
DsRed.M1Monomer, 46 amino acid substitutionsa (including A2D, S3N, and S4T)41
mRFP1Monomer, 33 amino acid substitutions,a 25-nm red-shifted excitation and emission wavelengthsa9
DsRed.T3Tetramer, 8 amino acid substitutions,a enhanced folding,a increased excitation at 488 nm,b brighter fluorophoreb3
DsRed.T4Tetramer, 9 amino acid substitutions,a approximately two-fold-faster maturationc3
tdimer2(12)Tandem dimer, 17 amino acid substitutionsa9
DsRed.T3_S4TDsRed.T3 with a S4T substitution, increase in fluorescence intensityc36
DsRed.T3(DNT)DsRed.T3_S4T with A2D and S3N substitutions, additional increase in fluorescence intensity41
  • a Relative to DsRed (23).

  • b Relative to DsRed.T4.

  • c Relative to DsRed.T3.