TABLE 1.

Overview of the spore load at the dairy farmsa

Sample (no. of isolates)% TS contentAvg concn
≤10>10-≤102>102-≤103>103-≤104>104-≤105>105-≤106>106-≤107
Raw milk (CFU ml−1)
    Total (18)5.633.338.916.75.65.46 × 103
Milking machine (CFU swab−1)
    Teat cups (33)21.254.521.23.03.84 × 102
    Cluster (12)16.750.016.716.71.05 × 103
    Connection point pipeline (6)33.350.016.78.89 × 103
    Filter cloth (2)b50.050.01.19 × 104
    Collection tank (11)18.218.245.518.25.18 × 102
    Total (64)17.243.826.69.43.1
Green crop (CFU g−1)
    Ensilage (12)8.325.050.016.71.44 × 105
    Green maize (15)6.726.733.320.06.76.72.86 × 105
    Hay/straw (5)40.040.020.01.01 × 105
    Other (4)c50.050.01.31 × 104
    Total (36)2.813.933.336.111.12.8
Fodder (CFU g−1)
    Feed concentrate (25)4.020.040.016.020.08.3 × 105
    Pulp (2)50.050.02.1 × 104
    Other (5)d40.040.020.01.0 × 104
    Total (32)3.16.325.037.512.515.6
  • a Total spore counts are expressed as percentages of the samples belonging to a given spore content category after heating at 80°C for 10 min. The number of samples analyzed per category of sample is mentioned in parentheses.

  • b The whole filter cloth was recovered for sampling; therefore, concentration is expressed as CFU per gram for this sample category.

  • c Other samples included luceme, chopped corn, grass, and ensiled beetroot and leaves.

  • d Other samples included soy (2), soy mixed with linseed, cereals, and a mixture of wheat, barley, and linseed.