Summary of the presence of a given species in the different sample categoriesa

IdentificationPresence (%)
Raw milkFodderGreen cropMilking equipmentOverall
Bacillus barbaricus1.20.3
Bacillus cereus group2.30.6
Bacillus circulans2.31.40.9
Bacillus farraginisb8.616.32.96.9
Bacillus flexus1.20.3
Bacillus fordiib1.
Bacillus fortisb2.00.70.7
Bacillus licheniformis22.35.59.311.612.2
Bacillus oleronius1.24.31.4
Bacillus pallidus15.115.211.622.516.1
Bacillus smithii1.
Bacillus sphaericus0.70.2
Bacillus sporothermodurans5.92.32.0
Bacillus subtilis group1.
Bacillus thermoamylovorans0.
Bacillus sp.c0.40.1
Bacillus sp. nov. B3.03.91.7
Bacillus sp. nov. C6.01.41.9
Bacillus sp. nov. D0.61.20.4
Bacillus sp. nov. E0.70.2
Bacillus sp. nov. K4.71.2
Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus0.41.40.5
Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus1.22.00.8
Brevibacillus agri4.
Brevibacillus borstelensis7.22.32.4
Brevibacillus brevis0.70.2
Brevibacillus spp.
Brevibacillus sp. nov. H2.70.7
Geobacillus spp.5.911.64.4
Paenibacillus lactisb4.22.91.8
Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus2.20.5
Paenibacillus sp.d2.90.7
Paenibacillus sp. nov. G1.24.71.5
Paenibacillus sp. nov. I1.40.4
Paenibacillus sp. nov. J3.02.01.2
Paenibacillus sp. nov. L0.60.2
Paenibacillus sp. nov. M2.40.6
Paenibacillus sp. nov. N0.40.1
Virgibacillus proomii3.60.9
Virgibacillus sp. nov. A0.80.2
Virgibacillus sp. nov. F5.41.4
Ureibacillus thermosphaericus6.60.71.8
No identificatione4.
  • a All FAME, ARDRA, and 16S rRNA gene sequence data were considered.

  • b P. lactis, B. farraginis, B. fortis, and B. fordii were described as new species following their isolation in this study (36, 38).

  • c Strain R-6685 could not be attributed to the three new species B. farraginis, B. fortis, and B. fordii (38) and is therefore designated as Bacillus sp.

  • d Four strains (R-6440, R-6441, R-6449, and R-6461) clustered together with P. lactis isolates in FAME but are reported as Paenibacillus sp. because a taxonomic study excluded them from P. lactis (36).

  • e Strains which held a single position in the FAME clustering of a given sample category and were not further analyzed or strains which clustered together with B. sporothermodurans strains in FAME but reacted negatively in a PCR with the primers described by Scheldeman et al. (37).