TABLE 3.

E. coli K-12 genes induced by ursolic acida

Function and geneb no.Ursolic acidFuranoneAI-2Description
10 μg/ml30 μg/ml
ERPERPERPERP
Chemotaxis and motility
    airb30721.50.02361.20.2182−4.60.00065.30.0001Aerotaxis sensor receptor, flavoprotein
    cheAb18881.60.00171.50.0112−22.90.001213.70.0007Sensory transducer kinase between chemo-signal receptors and CheB and CheY
    cheBb18831.50.02691.30.2061−7.70.00255.70.0020Response regulator for chemotaxis (CheA sensor), protein methylesterase
    cheWb18871.60.00211.50.0692−13.60.00374.70.0020Positive regulator of CheA protein activity
    cheYb18821.50.00081.40.0911−4.50.00183.20.0000Chemotaxis regulator transmits chemoreceptor signals to flagellar motor components
    cheZb18811.50.00331.40.0996−6.50.00339.00.0075Chemotactic response, CheY protein phosphatase, antagonist of CheY as switch regulator
    malEb40341.50.00351.50.0462−2.30.01891.40.0134Periplasmic maltose-binding protein, substrate recognition for transport and chemotaxis
    motAb18901.50.00281.30.0024−10.40.00205.10.0006Phenotype, chemotaxis, and mobility
    motBb18891.40.00021.40.0202−7.70.00055.10.0014Structural component, chemotaxis, and mobility
    tapb18851.70.00081.50.0315−310.20.001510.20.0025Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein IV, peptide sensor receptor
    tarb18861.60.00001.50.0188−13.30.000922.50.0002Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein II, aspartate sensor receptor
Heat shock and stress response
    b0531b05311.70.14942.30.00041.20.1110−1.40.6103Putative chaperone
    clpBb25921.60.00812.60.06121.10.0211−1.80.0080Heat shock protein
    dnaJb00151.50.03851.80.16311.00.58921.10.0583Factor, chaperones
    dnaKb00141.60.02242.10.12221.10.1370−1.10.3628Chaperone Hsp70, DNA biosynthesis, autoregulated heat shock proteins
    grpEb26141.40.04741.80.04121.00.98061.00.5185Phage lambda replication, host DNA synthesis, heat shock protein, protein repair
    hslSb36862.50.01876.10.00272.30.2327−8.50.0000Heat shock protein
    hslTb36871.60.04623.00.00201.40.2123−2.40.0000Heat shock protein
    hslUb39311.20.00412.10.00051.20.1135−1.40.0325Heat shock protein Hs1VU, ATPase subunit, homologous to chaperones
    hslVb39321.70.02852.00.00851.10.7736−1.30.2388Heat shock protein HslVU, proteasome-related peptidase subunit
    htpGb04731.90.00422.50.00931.20.1991−1.10.3880Chaperone Hsp90, heat shock protein C 62.5
    lonb04391.40.00161.50.01541.00.2636−1.10.5716Heat shock K protein
    mopAb41431.40.03102.30.00041.20.01521.00.3708GroEL, chaperone Hsp60, peptide-dependent ATPase, heat shock protein
    mopBb41421.50.01922.40.00391.20.0170−1.10.6626GroES, 10-kDa chaperone
    yrfHb34001.70.00022.50.00191.20.0039−1.90.0034Hsp15, DNA/RNA binding heat shock protein
    yrfIb34011.50.00111.90.00111.20.1008−1.80.0023Hsp33, redox regulated chaperone
    emrKb23681.50.00941.90.00971.30.0037−1.10.6719Multi-drug resistance protein K
    arsCb3503−1.60.04461.40.01432.30.2574−1.30.8110Enzyme, drug/analog sensitivity
    cutAb41371.10.94591.50.01271.40.1734−1.10.2734Divalent cation tolerance protein, cytochrome c biogenesis
    soxSb40621.20.35971.40.00692.10.3581−3.10.0031Regulation of superoxide response regulon
Transport
    cycAb42081.50.00051.40.01701.00.3535−1.40.0073Transport of d-alanine, d-serine, and glycine
    dcuAb41381.60.00741.50.00041.00.31221.00.4645Transport of small molecules: carbohydrates, organic acids, alcohols
    b1312b13121.01.00001.60.03191.50.6014−2.00.3356Putative transport system permease protein
    bglFb37221.40.05461.60.00531.00.5143−1.60.1040PTS system β-glucosides, enzyme II, cryptic
    fhuDb01521.10.85601.60.00321.40.9189−2.10.4068Hydroxamate-dependent iron uptake, cytoplasmic membrane component
    nikEb34801.00.55911.50.00121.00.35031.00.2808ATP-binding protein of nickel transport system
    yhaOb31101.40.13212.40.0018−2.00.0184−1.70.1292Putative transport system permease protein
    yhjXb35471.10.68831.40.00031.10.0693−1.50.1064Putative transport, drug/analog sensitivity
Synthesis and metabolism
    b2673b26731.40.00422.00.00233.60.2100−1.80.7355Enzyme, biosynthesis of cofactors, carriers: thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, glutathione
    fdoIb38921.60.0006−1.10.40601.10.4964−1.30.1909Energy metabolism, carbon: anaerobic respiration
    entCb05931.50.15151.50.00551.80.2511−6.90.0936Isochorismate hydroxymutase 2, enterochelin biosynthesis
    hycIb27171.30.04341.70.01031.20.1496−1.40.0875Enzyme, degradation of proteins, peptides, glyco
    ldhAb13801.00.71861.70.00081.10.4002−1.10.6766Energy metabolism, carbon: fermentation
    narZb14681.00.89041.40.00571.80.11961.20.1316Energy metabolism, carbon: anaerobic respiration
    miaAb41711.40.00021.70.01891.10.4461−1.10.6388Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, tRNA modification
    nrdEb26751.40.08071.50.01431.50.0029−2.00.0251Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 2, alpha subunit
    pdhRb01131.30.01142.00.03731.30.12031.30.0125Transcriptional regulator for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
    yhgJb34191.20.05091.40.02561.00.5413−1.50.0019Enzyme, RNA synthesis, modification, DNA transcription
    yhgKb34201.30.08471.60.00161.10.2198−1.70.0035Enzyme, RNA synthesis, modification, DNA transcription
Phage-related genes
    b0281b02811.20.02791.40.02871.20.0206−1.10.7089Putative phage integrase
    pspAb13041.00.68351.50.00571.70.0033−1.30.5019Phage shock protein, inner membrane protein
    pspBb13051.20.01971.60.00211.40.2287−1.90.6609Phage shock protein
    pspDb13071.00.95861.40.00352.00.2919−2.60.8178Phage shock protein
    yi81_2b05821.30.00101.40.00261.00.7197−1.10.6902IS, phage, Tn, transposon-related functions
    yi82_1b00171.30.02571.50.00121.00.9523−1.70.2159IS, phage, Tn, transposon-related functions
Genes with other functions and unknown functions
    cirAb21551.40.20051.60.00111.30.9818−5.70.0001Membrane, outer membrane constituents
    entEb05941.10.39101.80.01981.50.2639−2.60.02412,3-Dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase
    fxsAb41401.40.00431.70.00171.00.4058−2.90.9522Suppressor of F exclusion of bacteriophage T7
    mlcb15941.30.01421.40.01571.20.6067−1.20.8621Putative NAGC-like transcriptional regulator
    osmEb17391.80.00041.00.87461.10.26321.00.4443Transcriptional activator of ntrL gene
    prlCb34981.40.09511.70.00161.30.0134−2.00.0024Oligopeptidase A
    b1194b11941.60.01001.80.0778−4.00.01056.30.0003Orf, hypothetical protein
    b1321b13211.30.00231.50.00231.00.45461.00.8155Putative enzyme, not classified
    b1566b15661.50.01051.60.0431−7.10.00618.80.0002ORF, hypothetical protein
    b1760b17601.60.00751.70.0108−2.40.03984.90.0091ORF, hypothetical protein
    yadNb01411.40.03511.60.00031.10.5917−1.20.1473Putative fimbrial-like protein
    b2674b26741.50.03031.80.00321.90.0345−2.60.2658ORF, hypothetical protein
    ybeDb06311.00.73821.50.00801.10.4518−1.10.0123ORF, hypothetical protein
    ycjFb13221.20.08811.60.00101.30.01141.10.2333ORF, hypothetical protein
    yeiEb21571.30.01271.50.00231.00.4394−1.40.4110Putative regulator, not classified
    yhdMb32921.00.67851.40.04601.40.8804−2.00.0308Zn(II)-responsive transcriptional regulator
    yhjHb35251.60.15701.50.0169−9.90.00006.00.0002ORF, hypothetical protein
    yjjSb43671.50.02661.60.01451.10.0891−1.20.1999ORF, hypothetical protein
    yrfGb33991.40.06011.70.0120−1.10.2017−1.80.0179Putative enzyme, not classified
  • a For comparison, differential expression is indicated for the effect of AI-2 and 60 μg/ml furanone (49). The underlined ratios indicate the corresponding genes were significantly induced by ursolic acid. The genes in boldface were induced by both 10 and 30 μg/ml ursolic acid. ER, expression ratio.