TABLE 1.

E. coli isolates used in this study and their animal sources

SourceaNo. of E. coli strainsNo. of host individuals sampled
Humans210197
Cats4837
Dogs10671
Horses7844
Deer9664
Sheep6137
Goats4236
Cows189115
Pigs215111
Chickens14486
Turkeys12669
Ducks8142
Geese13573
  • a E. coli strains from humans were isolated from healthy students at the University of Minnesota and from healthy patients at VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN. E. coli strains from healthy cats and dogs were isolated at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center. E. coli strains from horses, sheep, goats, cows, pigs, chickens, and turkeys were isolated from fresh feces of healthy animals brought to the Minnesota State Fair and from multiple farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Samples from whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis), and Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were collected at Minnesota and Wisconsin wildlife management areas.