TABLE 2.

Resistance phenotype and prevalence of integrons and resistance genes in gram-negative bacteria

IsolateAnimal(s) (source)BacteriaResistance phenotypeaIntegron/resistance gene(s)
AZ1-1Wild birds (feces)A. baumanniiAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ2-3Wild birds (feces)E. coliTET, STR, NAL, SXTClass 2 (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1)
AZ5-3Wild birds (water)E. coliAMP, CEF, SXT, CHLClass 1 (dfrA17-aadA5), blaTEM-1
AZ10-1Scarlet macaw (feces)E. coliAMP, CEF, TET, STR, NAL, CIP, SXT, GEN, NOR,Class 1 (dfrA1-aadA1), blaTEM-1
AZ12-2Turtle (water)P. fluorescensNAL, SXTqnrB
AZ15-3White pelican (water)E. coliTET, STR, SXTClass 2 (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1)
AZ19-1Rhesus monkey (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ20-1Horned owl (feces)E. coliTET, KAN, STR, NAL, SXTClass 2 (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1)
AZ23-2Falcon (feces)E. coliSTR, TET, NAL, SXTClass 1(dfrA15-aadA1), qnrB
AZ23-3Falcon (feces)P. vulgarisTET, STR, NAL, SXTClass 1 (dfrA1-orf)
AZ23-4Falcon (feces)E. coliSTR, SXTClass 1 (dfrA15-aadA1)
AZ26-2Jaybird (feces)K. oxytocaFOX, CTT, AMP, CEF, CRO, AMC, SXT, KANblaCMY-26
AZ26-4Jaybird (feces)E. coliTET, STR, NAL, CIP, AMP, SXT, CHL, NORClass 1 (aadA2)
AZ29-2Kite and owl (feces)E. coliTET, STR, NAL, SXTClass 1 (dfrA15-aadA1)
AZ29-4Kite and owl (feces)M. morganiiTET, STR, NAL, SXTClass 1 (dfrA12-orf-aadA2)
AZ30-1Goshawk (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ31-2Falcon (feces)P. vulgarisTET, KAN, NAL, AMP, CEF, SXT, CHLClass 1 (dfrA1-orf), blaTEM-1
AZ31-3Falcon (feces)P. mirabilisTET, KAN, NAL, AMP, SXT, CHLClass 1 (dfrA1-orf)
AZ33-1Honey buzzard (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ33-3Honey buzzard (feces)P. mirabilisSTR, NAL, AMP, SXT, CHLClass 2 (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1) blaTEM-1
AZ35-3Falcon (feces)E. coliTET, STR, KAN, CIP, CHL, NORClass 1 (dfrA17-aadA5)
AZ36-1Birds (feces)E. coliAMP, CEF, CPD, CAZ, IMP, NAL, SXT, TETblaSHV-36
AZ36-4Wild birds (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ37-1Wild birds (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ39-1Japanese four-striped rat snake (feces)K. oxytocaAMP, CEF, AMC, AZTblaOXY-2
AZ54-2Red rat snake (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ58-1Giant salamander (water)K. oxytocaAMP, CEF, CPDX, AZTblaOXY-2
AZ60-2Eastern box turtle (water)K. oxytocaNALqnrB
AZ62-1Indian star tortoise/fecesK. pneumoniaeAMP, NAL, SXTqnrB
AZ66-2Aldabra giant tortoise (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
AZ67-1Aldabra giant tortoise (water)E. coliNAL, TETqnrS
AZ73-2Colombian rainbow boa (feces)K. oxytocaAMP, CEF, AMC, AZTblaOXY-2
AZ74-1Snowy owl (feces)E. coliTET, CIP, AMP, CEF, SXTClass 1 (dfrA1-aadA1), qnrS, blaTEM-1
AZ75-2Bengalese finches (feces)P. mirabilisNAL, TETqnrB
AZ71-1Elongated tortoise (water)E. cloacaeAMP, CEF, CTX, CRO, CAZ, CPD, IMP, AMCblaSHV-36
12-6-2Amur leopard (water)C. freundiiNAL, TETqnrB
21-11-1Red fox (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1, qnrS
25-13-1Eurasian badger (feces)Aeromonas spp.AMP, NAL, CIP, NOR, FOX, CHLaac(6′)-Ib-cr
28-14-2Masked palm civet (feces)E. coliCPD, CTX, CRO, AMP, CEF, NAL, SXT, STR, CIP, TETblaCTX-M-2
40-23-1Reticulated giraffe (feces)E. coliTET, STR, AMP, SXTClass 1 (dfrA1-aadA1)
49-28-1Marten (feces)E. coliSTR, SXTClass 1 (dfrA2-orf-aadA2)
52-5-3Amur tiger (water)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
55-8-3Wild boar (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
59-11-3Red fox (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
60-12-3Racoon dog (feces)E. coliTET, STR, AMP, SXTClass 1 (dfrA5)
61-13-3Eurasian badger (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
62-14-3Masked palm civet (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
73-28-3Marten (feces)E. coliAMP, CEFblaTEM-1
79-13-4Eurasian badger (feces)E. cloacaeSTR, AMP, SXT, NALClass 1(dfrA12-orf-aadA2) qnrS
  • a AMP, ampicillin; AMC, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; CEF, cephalothin; FOX, cefoxitin; CTT, cefotetan; CFP, cefoperazone; CTX, cefotaxime; CAZ, ceftazidime; CPD, cefpodoxime; CRO, ceftriaxone; ATM, aztreonam; NAL, nalidixic acid; CIP, ciprofloxacin; NOR, norfloxacin; CHL, chloramphenicol; GEN, gentamicin; KAN, kanamycin; STR, streptomycin; TET, tetracycline; SXT, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.