TABLE 1.

Phenotypes and genotypes of Lactococcus species and subspecies and biovar diacetylactis

OrganismPhenotypeaGenotype of clusterb
Growth at 40°CGrowth with 4% NaClCitrate utilizationArginine dehydrolaseMaltosecLactose and galactosecRibosecSSU rRNA gene and (GTG)5 fpL. lactis subsp. lactis type- strain-like (n)L. lactis subsp. cremoris type- strain-like (n)
L. lactis subsp. lactis+ (−)+++++1A, 1B, 1C1A (60), 1C (2)1B (9)
L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis+ (−)++++++1A1A (7)
L. lactis subsp. cremoris+1A, 1B1B (11)
L. lactis subsp. hordniae+1ANANA
L. raffinolactis(+)++(+)3NANA
L. plantarumV++5NANA
L. garvieae++++ (−)++2NANA
L. pisciumNANA++4NANA
  • a Adapted from Schleifer et al. and Holt et al. (13, 34). V, variable; NA, not available/applicable; +, positive; −, negative; +(−), most positive but occasional negative; −(+), most negative but occasional positive.

  • b Data are from the present study. n, number of isolates in this study; NA, not available/applicable; fp, fingerprinting.

  • c Results indicate whether acid is produce from this substance.