TABLE 1.

Yeast strains used in this study

StrainGenotypeBackground and/or description
MB329-17Cα trp1 ura3-52 put1-54S288C and Σ1278b; put1 mutant
FH515α trp1 ura3-52 put1-54 pro1D154NMB329-17C; pro1 mutant; the l-proline-accumulating laboratory strain
XUW-14α ura3 trp1Sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 14 (K-14)
XUW-TRPα ura3 TRP1XUW-14; TRP1 revertant; the control sake yeast strain
XUDput1α ura3 trp1 put1::TRP1XUW-14; put1 disruptant
XUDput1-MTα ura3 trp1 put1::TRP1 pro1D154NXUDput1; pro1 mutant, the l-proline-accumulating sake yeast strain