TABLE 1.

Microbial (interspecies) interactions observed during food fermentations and in the fermented products

Type of interaction and product or environmentOrganisms involvedReference(s)
Mutualism
    Yogurt S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 1, 31-33, 43, 53, 66, 119, 140, 151, 154, 163, 179
    DairyLAB 108, 153
    Cold milk Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pseudomonas fluorescens 80
    Dairy, sourdough, laboratory mediumLAB, yeasts, fungi 26, 108, 137
    MilkLAB, yeasts 52, 108
    Sourdough Saccharomyces exiguous, Candida humilis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 39, 56, 57
    Surface-ripened cheeseDifferent species of molds, yeasts, and bacteria 30
Amensalism
    Dairy, vegetable brothLAB, Listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonads, Staphylococcus sp., Yersinia sp., Bacillus sp. 9, 13, 14, 16, 71, 89, 94, 95, 102, 143
    Broth culture, laboratory medium, vegetable brothLAB, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus spp., Enterobacter sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio sp., Salmonella sp. 10, 11, 16, 25, 55, 63, 77, 92, 94, 95, 103, 115, 148, 159
    Wine Lactobacillus hilgardii, Pediococcus pentosaceus 94, 131
    Yogurt S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 71, 117, 127, 179
    MeatLAB, Listeria monocytogenes 13
    WineMalolactic bacteria, yeasts 3
    Surface-ripened cheese Lactobacillus plantarum, Listeria monocytogenes 91
    LettuceLAB, Listeria monocytogenes 4
Commensalism
    DairyLAB 108, 153, 175
    Yogurt S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, propionibacteria 175
    Yogurt, dairyLAB, propionibacteria 28, 175
    MilkLAB, yeasts 52, 108
    WineMalolactic bacteria, yeasts 3
    Surface-ripened cheeseLAB, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum, Arthrobacter sp., Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, staphylococci 107
    Laboratory mediumYeasts, Bacterium linens 124
    Fermented milks, yogurt, cheesesYeasts, bacteria 165
Competition
    Yogurt S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 105, 179
    DairyLAB, yeasts 52, 108
Parasitism
    Laboratory mediumBacterium, phage 29, 137
    MilkBacterium, phage 20, 145
    Aquatic environmentsBacterium, phage 169, 170