TABLE 1.

Microbial (interspecies) interactions observed during food fermentations and in the fermented products

Type of interaction and product or environmentOrganisms involvedReference(s)
Mutualism
    YogurtS. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus1, 31-33, 43, 53, 66, 119, 140, 151, 154, 163, 179
    DairyLAB108, 153
    Cold milkLactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pseudomonas fluorescens80
    Dairy, sourdough, laboratory mediumLAB, yeasts, fungi26, 108, 137
    MilkLAB, yeasts52, 108
    SourdoughSaccharomyces exiguous, Candida humilis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis39, 56, 57
    Surface-ripened cheeseDifferent species of molds, yeasts, and bacteria30
Amensalism
    Dairy, vegetable brothLAB, Listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonads, Staphylococcus sp., Yersinia sp., Bacillus sp.9, 13, 14, 16, 71, 89, 94, 95, 102, 143
    Broth culture, laboratory medium, vegetable brothLAB, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus spp., Enterobacter sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio sp., Salmonella sp.10, 11, 16, 25, 55, 63, 77, 92, 94, 95, 103, 115, 148, 159
    WineLactobacillus hilgardii, Pediococcus pentosaceus94, 131
    YogurtS. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus71, 117, 127, 179
    MeatLAB, Listeria monocytogenes13
    WineMalolactic bacteria, yeasts3
    Surface-ripened cheeseLactobacillus plantarum, Listeria monocytogenes91
    LettuceLAB, Listeria monocytogenes4
Commensalism
    DairyLAB108, 153, 175
    YogurtS. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, propionibacteria175
    Yogurt, dairyLAB, propionibacteria28, 175
    MilkLAB, yeasts52, 108
    WineMalolactic bacteria, yeasts3
    Surface-ripened cheeseLAB, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum, Arthrobacter sp., Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, staphylococci107
    Laboratory mediumYeasts, Bacterium linens124
    Fermented milks, yogurt, cheesesYeasts, bacteria165
Competition
    YogurtS. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus105, 179
    DairyLAB, yeasts52, 108
Parasitism
    Laboratory mediumBacterium, phage29, 137
    MilkBacterium, phage20, 145
    Aquatic environmentsBacterium, phage169, 170