TABLE 1.

Parameters of equation 4 for the different aquatic environments at temperatures above 4°C as determined by DAPI/PI vital dye (or in vitro excystation) and cell culture methods

MethodWater sample typeK4 (day−1)λRanReference(s)
DAPI/PI or excystationSterilized water0.00290.1180.767***1919, 20, 30, 32-36, 40
    analysisRiver water0.00930.0950.616**185, 25, 27, 28, 32, 35, 36
Tap water235
Seawater0.0090.0640.891**628, 35
Cell cultureSterilized water0.00550.1410.982***625, 28
Raw water0.00510.1580.933***1618, 25
  • a ** and *** indicate significance at P values of <0.01 and <0.001, respectively.