TABLE 6.

Genes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism identified in this study as determinants of yeast resistance to inhibitory ethanol concentrationsa

Gene/ORF nameProtein description
Carbohydrate metabolism
    FPS1Plasma membrane glycerol channel, involved in efflux of glycerol and in uptake of the trivalent metalloids arsenite and antimonite
    HAP2Subunit of the heme-activated, glucose-repressed Hap2p/-3p/-4p/-5p CCAAT-binding complex, a transcriptional activator and global regulator of respiratory gene expression
    MIG1Transcription factor involved in glucose repression; sequence-specific DNA binding protein containing two Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs
    TPS1Synthase subunit of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex, which synthesizes the storage of carbohydrate trehalose
    REG1Regulatory subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7p, involved in negative regulation of glucose-repressible genes
    PFK266-Phosphofructo-2-kinase, inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
    GCR1Transcriptional activator of genes involved in glycolysis; interacts and functions with the transcriptional activator Gcr2p
    GPH1Nonessential glycogen phosphorylase required for the mobilization of glycogen
    RTG3Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH/Zip) transcription factor that forms a complex with another bHLH/Zip protein, Rtg1p, to activate the retrograde and TOR pathways
Amino acid metabolism
    SLM4Component of the EGO complex, which is involved in the regulation of microautophagy, and of the GSE complex, which is required for proper sorting of amino acid permease Gap1p
    GTR1Cytoplasmic GTP binding protein and negative regulator, with homolog Gtr2p, of the Ran/Tc4 GTPase cycle; component of GSE complex, which is required for sorting of Gap1p
    AGP2High-affinity polyamine permease, preferentially uses spermidine over putrescine; plasma membrane carnitine and low-affinity amino acid permease
    BNA13-Hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase, required for biosynthesis of nicotinic acid from tryptophan via kynurenine pathway
    LST8Protein required for the transport of amino acid permease Gap1p from the Golgi complex to the cell surface
    PTR3Component of the SPS plasma membrane amino acid sensor system (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p)
    GCN4Transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in response to amino acid starvation
    GLY1Threonine aldolase, catalyzes the cleavage of l-allo-threonine and l-threonine to glycine; involved in glycine biosynthesis