TABLE 1.

Isolation of eae- and stx-possessing Escherichia coli strains from cloacal swabs of various wild birds between 2003 and 2007 in the immediate environment of Tokyo Bay in Japan

Order of birdBird (common name)Bird (nomenclature)No. of samples testedNo. of eae-positive samplesIntimin type (O serogroup)No. of stx-positive samplesstx type (O serogroup)
ColumbiformesFeral pigeon Columba livia 675α (O132) (2)a, ε (O132), κ (O2), NTb (O55)22f (O132)
Oriental turtle dove Streptopelia orientalis 502μ (O55), ε (O8)12f (O20)
White-bellied green pigeon Treron sieboldii 71μ (O71)
Rock dove Columbia livia domestica LINNE2
PasseriformesEurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus 385xi (O137), λ (O117), ζ (O103) (2), ε (O8)
Meadow bunting Emberiza cioides 71NT (O55)
Bunting Emberiza spodocephala 1
White-cheeked starling Sturnus cineraceus 173μ (ONT), β (O2), NT (O55)
Japanese white-eye Zosterops japonicus 181xi (O137)
Brown-eared bulbul Ixos amaurotis 304β (O128), ξ (O56), NT (O55), NT (ONT)
Blue-and-white flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 2
Japanese sky lark Alauda arvensis japonica 1
Grey-capped green finch Carduelis sinica 6
White wagtail Motacilla alba 3
Japanese robin Erithacus akahige 1
Dusky thrush Turdus naumanni 5
White thrush Zoothera dauma 1
Japanese tit (great tit) Parus major 7
Varied tit Parus varius 2
Coal tit Parus ater 2
Barn swallow Hirundo rustica 212λ (O117), β (O21)12f (O147)
Asian house martin Delichon urbica dasypus 1
Large-billed crow Corvus macrorhyncos 14
Carrion crow Corvus corone orientalis 3
Azure-winged magpie Cyanopica cyana 52μ (O55), NT (O147)
CharadriiformesBlack-headed gull Larus ridibundus 10
Herring gull Larus argentatus 3
Black-tailed gull Larus crassirostris 7
Eurasian wood cock Scolopax rusticola 1
Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres 1
Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus 1
AnseriformesSpot-billed duck Anas poecilorhyncha 121χ (O81)
Great scaup Aythya marila 5
Common teal Anas crecca 4
Black scoter Melanitta nigra 1
Domestic duck Anas platyrhynchos var. domesticus2
Eurasian wigeon Anas pelope 1
Tufted duck Aythya fuligula 5
Common pochard Aythya ferina 2
Mute swan Cygnus olor 2
Gadwall Anas strepera 11α2 (O120)
Canada goose Branta canadensis leucopareia 1
CiconiiformesBlack-crowned night-heron Ardeidae Leach, 18208
Great egret Egretta alba 3
Intermediate egret Ardea intermedia 3
Little egret Egretta garzetta 11υ (O64)
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis corominas 1
Gray heron Ardea cinerea jouyi 4
ProcellariiformesStreaked shearwater Calonectris leucomelas 8
Short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris 83β (O110), β (O128), ε (O115)
GruiformesCommon moorhen Gallinula chloropus 1
Common coot Fulica atra 3
PelecaniformesGreat cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo honedae 195λ1 (O171), β (O8), θ (O55), β (ONT), NT (O58)
StrigiformesHonsyu ural owl Strix uralensis hondoensis 3
Brown hawk owl Ninox scutulata japonica 1
Japanese scops owl Otus lempiji semitorques 1
CoraciiformesCommon kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
GalliformesGolden pheasant Chryslophus pictus 1
Ukokkei fowl (Silky) Gallus gallus var. domesticus1
Domestic fowl Gallus gallus var. domesticus6
Peach-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis 31α1 (O120)
CuculiformesOriental cuckoo Cuculus saturatus horsfieldi 1
Total447394
  • a The number in parentheses is the number of isolates.

  • b NT, the strain could not be typed.