TABLE 3

Impact of additives on antimicrobial properties in extracts of H. illucens larvaea

AdditiveExtraction solventMore active than extracts from control diet?b
E. coliM. luteusP. fluorescensB. subtilis
High proteinWaterNoNoYesYes
ChloroformNoNoNoNo
ChitinWaterNoYesNoYes
ChloroformNoNoNoNo
LigninWaterNDcNDNoNo
ChloroformYesYesNoYes
CelluloseWaterNoYesYesYes
ChloroformNoNoNoNo
Plant oilWaterNoYesNoYes
ChloroformYesYesYesYes
BacteriaWaterNoYesNoNo
ChloroformYesYesYesYes
  • a As determined from Vogel et al., 2018 (74).

  • b Determined by disk diffusion antimicrobial assays.

  • c ND, not determined.