TABLE 2

Results of published studies using challenging with pathogenic bacteria

Study authors and year of publicationSubstrateStorageIncubation (h)MicroorganismInoculation (CFU/g)aTemp (°C)Reduction (log10 CFU/g)a
Erickson et al., 2004 (64)Cow manure1 day at −20°C72E. coli10727≈0.5
Hog manure≈3.5
Chicken manure1 day at −20°C72Salmonella10727≈2.5b
E. coli23≈1.0
E. coli27≈6.0b
E. coli32≈6.0b
Chicken manure45 min at 121°C72Salmonella10727≈2.5b
Liu et al., 2008 (52)Dairy manure7 days at −20°C72E. coli107235.1b
276.1b
315.0b
Lalander et al., 2013 (65)Human feces−20°C192Salmonella10720–256.0b
Enterococcus106<1.0b
  • a ≈, values were derived from the graphs in the article.

  • b Statistically significant reduction compared to the controls in the study.