TABLE 1.

Characteristics of water samples from Lake Biwa, Japan

Sample nameSampling datesMean (range) for characteristic:
Temp (°C)Conductivity (mS/cm)DOa concn (mg/liter)pHORP (mV)Ammonia N concn (mg/liter)Ammonium N concn (mg/liter)Turbidity (NTU)bChlorophyll concn (μg/liter)Total no. of VLPc (108 VLP/ml)Total no. of bacteria (106 cells/ml)
June 200715 May to 2 July 200725.1 (18.8-27.9)7.2 (6.3-9.1)1.1 (0.4-4.7)2.6 (1.5-4.7)
August 200720 to 23 August 200730.8 (27.6-34.7)7.7 (6.4-9.2)0.8 (0.3-2.6)4.5 (2.3-8.0)
November 200712 to 15 November 200716.4 (13.0-20.3)0.17 (0.10-0.45)9.5 (2.5-14.3)7.8 (6.4-9.0)214 (46-271)0.01 (0.00-0.06)0.34 (0.13-1.89)19.0 (0.1-225.9)8.2 (2.3-37.9)1.0 (0.1-3.3)4.9 (0.5-56.7)
February 20084 to 7 February 20088.2 (5.0-15.5)0.13 (0.07-0.41)12.2 (9.0-14.6)7.4 (6.1-8.8)313 (296-329)0.00 (0.00-0.01)0.14 (0.06-0.69)3.9 (0.2-19.4)6.1 (1.0-31.5)0.6 (0.1-1.6)1.2 (0.3-2.2)
May 200813 to 15 May 200818.7 (15.1-22.0)0.14 (0.09-0.30)10.8 (8.0-13.8)8.1 (7.2-8.9)259 (230-290)0.01 (0.00-0.04)0.21 (0.11-0.59)14.6 (0.7-60.9)11.2 (1.6-80.2)0.7 (0.3-1.3)3.2 (1.5-5.7)
June 200824 and 25 June 200823.9 (19.6-25.9)0.16 (0.11-0.44)9.3 (7.4-11.3)8.5 (7.5-9.3)259 (241-285)0.08 (0.01-0.34)0.35 (0.19-1.01)9.6 (1.2-70.4)8.2 (0.6-87.6)0.8 (0.3-1.9)3.5 (0.6-7.1)
August 20087 to 11 August 200832.0 (27.7-36.1)0.20 (0.13-0.46)9.6 (4.5-14.4)8.7 (6.8-9.7)221 (172-307)0.54 (0.00-2.89)0.47 (0.22-1.18)2.0 (0.2-4.7)4.5 (1.6-13.9)1.0 (0.3-2.2)3.7 (1.8-7.7)
October 20086 to 8 October 200822.2 (19.6-24.7)0.16 (0.07-0.47)9.3 (6.7-11.1)8.0 (6.7-9.0)300 (258-362)0.02 (0.00-0.08)0.28 (0.14-1.09)5.1 (0.7-24.7)5.9 (0.4-40.9)0.9 (0.5-1.8)3.0 (1.7-4.3)
December 20081 and 2 December 200813.1 (11.1-19.4)0.14 (0.07-0.39)10.1 (4.3-11.7)7.6 (6.6-8.5)355 (274-416)0.01 (0.00-0.04)0.61 (0.29-1.71)9.9 (0.3-56.8)2.9 (0.0-9.7)0.7 (0.1-1.8)1.8 (0.5-4.3)
  • a DO, dissolved oxygen.

  • b NTU, nephelometric turbidity units.

  • c VLP, virus-like particles.