TABLE 2.

Carbon sources used by V. vulnificus strains

Carbon sourceTypeGrowtha
Species (n = 111)Biotype 1 (n = 51)Biotype 2Biotype 3 (n = 5)
Total (n = 55)Serovar E (n = 36)Non-serovar E (n = 19)
DextrinPolymer++++++
GlycogenPolymer++++++
α-d-GlucoseCarbohydrate++++++
d-TrehaloseCarbohydrate++++++
N-Acetyl-d-glucosamineCarbohydrate++++++
d-FructoseCarbohydrate++++++
l-AsparagineAmino acid++++++
Glucose 6-phosphatePhosphorylated chemical++++(+)+
Tween 80Polymer+++++(+)
l-Glutamic acidAmino acid++(+)(+)++
InosineAromatic chemical++(+)(+)++
MaltoseCarbohydrate(+)(+)++(+)+
d-Gluconic acidCarboxylic acid(+)+(+)(+)++
Cellobioseb,cCarbohydrate(+)(+)+++
d-MannoseCarbohydrate(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)
MethylpyruvateEster(+)+(+)(+)+(+)
l-Aspartic acidAmino acid(+)+(+)(+)(+)+
Gentiobioseb,cCarbohydrate(+)(+)++(+)
Tween 40Polymer(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)+
Succinic acidAmide(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)+
Glucose 1-phosphatePhosphorylated chemical(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)
MonomethylsuccinateEster(+)(+)V (73)V (69)(+)+
l-AlanylglycineAmino acidV (74)V (69)(+)(+)(+)V (60)
Glycyl-l-aspartic acidcAmino acidV (73)V (59)(+)(+)(+)(+)
N-Acetyl-d-galactosamineCarbohydrateV (72)V (67)(+)V (72)(+)(+)
UridinedAromatic chemicalV (72)(+)V (69)V (59)(+)(+)
l-AlanineAmino acidV (66)V (63)V (69)V (72)V (63)V (60)
β-Methyl-d-glucosideb,cCarbohydrateV (59)V (37)(+)(+)(+)
dl-Lactic acidb,c,dCarboxylic acidV (59)V (73)V (44)V (33)V (63)(+)
GlycerolAlcoholV (57)V (59)V (55)V (56)V (53)V (60)
d-GalactoseCarbohydrateV (54)V (57)V (55)V (47)V (68)V (20)
Bromosuccinic acidBrominated chemicalV (51)V (53)V (47)V (44)V (53)(+)
dl-α-GlycerolphosphatedPhosphorylated chemicalV (48)V (49)V (46)V (56)V (26)V (60)
l-ProlineAmino acidV (47)V (43)V (47)V (47)V (47)(+)
Acetic acidCarboxylic acidV (38)V (45)V (35)V (36)V (32)
l-ThreonineAmino acidV (38)V (45)V (35)V (31)V (42)
d-Mannitolc,dCarbohydrateV (36)V (39)V (36)(+)
d-PsicoseCarbohydrateV (35)V (31)V (38)V (44)V (26)V (40)
l-SerinebAmino acidV (34)V (43)V (29)V (28)V (32)
d-Glucuronic aciddCarboxylic acidV (33)V (28)V (38)V (28)V (58)V (40)
α-Ketoglutaric aciddCarboxylic acidV (32)V (39)V (27)V (22)V (37)
GlucuronamideAmideV (32)V (29)V (33)V (25)V (47)V (40)
Glycyl-l-glutamic acidAmino acidV (32)V (28)V (35)V (33)V (37)V (40)
α-d-Lactoseb,cCarbohydrateV (31)V (16)V (47)V (50)V (43)
Thymidineb,cAromatic chemicalV (31)V (41)V (18)V (32)V (60)
AlaninamideAmideV (22)V (22)V (37)
ρ-Hydroxyphenylacetic acidCarboxylic acidV (25)V (16)V (22)
d-AlanineAmino acidVV (22)V (16)
Propionic acidbCarboxylic acidV (20)V (19)V (21)
  • a +, positive reaction for ≥90% of the isolates; (+), positive reaction for 75 to 89% of the isolates; V, positive reaction for 11 to 74% of the isolates (the number in parentheses is the percentage of positive isolates); −, positive reaction for ≤10% of the isolates.

  • b Carbon source for which there are significant statistical differences (P < 0.05) in its use between the three biotypes.

  • c Carbon source for which there are significant statistical differences (P < 0.05) in its use between the four groups (biotype 1, biotype 2 serovar E, biotype 2 non-serovar E, and biotype 3).

  • d Carbon source for which there are significant statistical differences (P < 0.05) in its use between the serovar E isolates and the rest of the biotype 2 isolates.