TABLE 1.

Amyloid prevalence among gram-positive organisms: binding of WO2 to untreated and saponified cells based on immunofluorescence data

SpeciesWO2 binding to untreated cellsaWO2 binding to saponified cellsaWO2 binding locations (untreated)b
Corynebacterineae: Corynebacterium
    C. flavescens++++Within a few large microcolonies
    C. glutamicum++++Within all microcolonies and on single cells
Corynebacterineae: Dietzia
    D. maris++++Within all microcolonies and on single cells
    D. papillomatosis+++NDWithin all microcolonies and on single cells
Corynebacterineae: Gordonia
    G. amarae++
    G. hydrophobica
Corynebacterineae: Nocardia
    N. asteroidesc+++On mycelia and within all microcolonies, spores and aerial hyphae positive
    N. polyresistensc+++NDWithin all microcolonies and on single cells, spores positive
Corynebacterineae: Mycobacterium
    M. avium+++NDWithin velvet-like aggregates
    M. phlei
Corynebacterineae: Tsukamurella
    T. paurometabola++Cell microcolonies and large fibrous aggregates
    T. spumae+++NDCell microcolonies and large fibrous aggregates
Corynebacterineae: Williamsia
    W. maris+++NDWithin all cell microcolonies and on single cells
    W. muralis++Primarily within large cell microcolonies
Non-Corynebacterineae in Actinobacteria
    S. coelicolor+++Only spores positive
    S. cinnabarium+++Within large mycelia and on single cells
    G. obscurus+++NDWithin cells and huge extracellular matrices
    A. acidiphila++NDPrimarily within large cell microcolonies
Firmicutes
    E. aquimarinus+On large cellular microcolonies
    B. mycoidesc++++Within cell microcolonies and on large fibrous aggregates, spores positive
  • a −, no WO2 binding; +, low level of WO2 binding, and only few microcolonies of cells were positive; ++, intermediate level of WO2 binding, and there was an obvious distinction between labeled highly positive cell microcolonies and unlabeled single cells; +++, strong WO2 binding (i.e., no WO2-negative cells were observed); ND, not done.

  • b WO2 DAPI counterstaining allowed assessment of the position of FuBA relative to the cells.

  • c N. asteroides, N. polyresistens, and B. mycoides were grown in liquid standing cultures, and massive sporulation was observed; therefore, submerged mycelia and cells, aerial mycelia and cells, and spores were present when the cultures were labeled with WO2.