TABLE 3.

Number of positive amplifications and DNA-DNA hybridizations with Bif, BAN, and BDE probes

Sample sourceSubcategoryNo. of samplesNo. of positive amplifications or hybridizations
PCRaProbeb
BifBANBDE
Urban sewageTreatment plant 199909
Treatment plant 2151515015
Treatment plant 333302
Hospital sewageGeneral11101
Trauma11100
Human fecesAdults20202005
Infants88804
SlaughterhousePig43200
SewageCattle43321
Chicken44ND00
Animal fecesPig64400
Cattle44430
Duck11100
Goat11110
Rabbit11000
Chicken11100
Asian pig11100
Donkey11000
Lamb11100
  • a Positive amplifications with the Bifidobacterium-specific primers lm26 and lm3.

  • b Positive DNA-DNA hybridizations with specific probes. ND, not determined.