TABLE 1.

Bacterial strains and plasmid used

Strain or plasmidCharacteristicsReference
Strains
    V. cholerae MO101992 clinical isolate of V. cholerae O139 from India; Smr38
    PW328MO10 ΔvpsL, Smr12
    PW357MO10 lacZ::vpsLplacZ, Smr12
    PW396MO10 ΔvpsA, SmrThis study
    PW397MO10 ΔvpsLΔvpsA, SmrThis study
Plasmid pAJH9pWM91 carrying a fragment of the vpsA operon harboring an internal, unmarked deletionThis study