TABLE 4.

Prevalence and concentration of human and animal NoV and AdV and F+ RNA bacteriophages in environmental samples as detected by the viral tool boxb

Sample typeNo. of samples% Positive samples (mean log10 genome copy no. of positive samples ± SD [min-max])
VTB-1VTB-2VTB-3VTB-4
Porcine AdV-5Ovine AdVHuman AdV-FHuman AdV-CAtAdVPorcine AdV-5NoV GINoV GIINoV GIIIF+ RNA GIF+ RNA GIIF+ RNA GIIIF+ RNA GIV
Shellfish1513 (3.3 ± 0.1 [3.2-3.4])13 (2.1 ± 0.4 [1.8-2.3])20 2.8 ± 0.4 [2.4-3.2])7 (2.4a)7 (2.4a)027 (3.6 ± 0.4 [3.1-4.1])40 (3.2 ± 0.3 [2.9-3.7])47 (2.4 ± 0.7 [1.4-3.1])20 (2.5 ± 0.9 [1.5-3.1])73 (3.2 ± 1.0 [1.9-5.1])7 (4.8a)0
Sewage influent11055 (4.2 ± 0.7 [3.4-5.3])100 (6.0 ± 1.0 [4.0-7.1])36 (2.7 ± 0.4 [2.2-3.1])0082 (3.1 ± 1.1 [1.3-4.6])82 (4.4 ± 1.0 [2.5-5.7])9 (4.4a)55 (5.4 ± 0.5 [4.9-6.0])91 (6.2 ± 0.9 [4.2-7.1])100 (6.1 ± 1.0 [4.0-7.4])18 (4.3 ± 1.4 [3.4-5.3])
Abattoir effluent2050 (5.4a)000000100 (5.2 ± 0.2 [5.1-5.3])50 (5.7a)000
Biosolids4075 (3.2 ± 0.6 [2.8-3.9])75 (4.9 ± 0.7 [4.3-5.7])50 (2.8 ± 0.3 [2.6-3.0])0050 (1.5 ± 0.7 [1.0-2.0])75 (2.8 ± 1.0 [2.0-3.9])0075 (2.5 ± 0.5 [2.1-3.0])75 (3.6 ± 0.6 [2.9-3.9])0
River water650 (2.8 ± 0.3 [2.6-3.1])50 (1.5 ± 0.9 [0.6-2.3])50 (2.6 ± 0.4 [2.1-3.0])000017 (2.3a)17 (2.9a)50 (2.4 ± 0.7 [1.8-3.9])100 (3.5 ± 0.6 [2.7-4.2])33 (3.1 ± 0.8 [2.6-3.7])0
  • a Only one sample was positive.

  • b Concentrations are per gram digestive tract for shellfish (fresh weight), per liter river water and sewage influent and effluent, and per gram biosolids (dry weight), respectively.