TABLE 2.

Resistance of representative copper coin isolates to dry or moist copper surfaces and ionic copper

Type or control strain or coin isolateaSurvival time on:MIC (mM CuCl2)
Dry copper surfacesMoist copper surfaces
Escherichia coli W3110b>30 s>1 h3.5
Pantoea stewartii DSM 30176>30 s>48 h1.5
P. stewartii L10>24 h>1 h4.5
Acinetobacter johnsonii DSM 6963>1 min>1 h2.5
A. johnsonii L18>24 h>1 h3.0
Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045>30 s>1 h2.5
P. oleovorans L19>48 h>24 h3.5
Sphingomonas panni DSM 15761>48 h>48 h2.0
S. panni R65P>48 h>1 h0.75
Staphylococcus haemolyticus DSM 20263>1 h>3 h3.5
S. haemolyticus L70>48 h>3 h2.0
Staphylococcus epidermidis DSM 20044>1 h>1 h1.0
S. epidermidis L77>24 h>24 h1.5
Staphylococcus warnerii DSM 20316>1 min>1 h2.5
S. warnerii L47>48 h>24 h2.0
Brachybacterium conglomeratum DSM 10241>10 min>1 h0.5
B. conglomeratum N96>7 days>1 h0.5
Micrococcus luteus DSM 20030>3 h>24 h2.0
M. luteus L51>48 h>3 h1.5
Kocuria marina JCM 13363>48 h>1 h2.0
K. marina L73>24 h>24 h2.0
K. palustris R40>48 h>1 h0.75
  • a In each group, the first strain is a type or control strain and the second and/or third strain is a coin isolate.

  • b Lab strain of E. coli, included as an example of a copper-sensitive bacterium.