TABLE 1.

V. vulnificus strains used in the study: source, biotype, genotype, serovar, and PCR results

Strain(s)Biotype/serovaraOriginGenotypingbCountry of isolationPCRHuman serum resistance
vcg16S rRNAVvhaVvpdh
ATCC33816, CECT 5164, CECT 5168, CECT 5169,Bt1/NTHuman bloodCBUnited States+++
CECT 529TdBt1/NTHuman bloodEAUnited States+
CECT 5166Bt1/NTWound infectionEBUnited States+++
CECT 5165dBt1/NTSeawaterEAUnited States+
E4Bt1/NTSeafoodCBUnited States+
JEcBt1/NTSeafoodEBUnited States++
MLT364, MLT362Bt1/NTEnvironmentalCBUnited States+++
VV1003c,Bt1/NTEnvironmentalCBUnited States++
VV352c,d, VV425cBt1/NTEnvironmentalEAUnited States++
MLT404d, MLT406dBt1/NTEnvironmentalEAUnited States+
V4dBt1/NTHuman bloodCBAustralia+++
CS9133Bt1/NTHuman bloodCBSouth Korea+++
CECT 5167, N87, KH03Bt1/NTHuman bloodCBJapan+++
YN03Bt1/NTHuman bloodEAJapan+++
L49Bt1/NTBrackish waterEAJapan+
YJ106Bt1/NTHuman bloodCBTaiwan+++
CG118Bt1/NTSeawaterCBTaiwan+++
CG100dBt1/NTOysterCBTaiwan+++
CG106Bt1/NTOysterEATaiwan+
CG110, CG111Bt1/NTSeawaterCBTaiwan+
CECT 4867Bt1/NTDiseased eelEASweden+
94-9-118Bt1/NTHuman expectorationEADenmark+++
94-9-130Bt1/NTWaterEADenmark+
94-9-119Bt1/NTHuman woundEADenmark+++
A2, A4, A5, A6, A7, PD-1, PD-3, PD-5, PD-12, V1Bt1/NTEel tank waterEASpain+
PD-2-66Bt1/NTEel tank waterEBSpain+
CECT 4606dBt1/NTHealthy eelEASpain+
Riu-1Bt1/NTSeawaterEASpain+
Riu-3Bt1/NTSeawaterEABSpain+
94385dBt1/NTLeg woundEBSpain+++
CECT 4608dBt1/NTEel farm waterCBSpain+++
CECT 5768, A13, A21, A22, CECT 5689, CECT 5769, A15, A16, A17, A18, CECT 5198, CECT 5343, A10, A11, A14dBt2/SerADiseased eelEASpain+
4/7/17, 4/7/19,Bt2/SerADiseased eelEADenmark+
21B, 22, 26, 27, 21ABt2/SerADiseased eelNDNDDenmark+
CECT 4864, CECT 4999d, CECT 4605, CECT 4607, CECT 4604d, CECT 4602, CECT 4603, CECT 4601Bt2/SerEDiseased eelEASpain+++
PD-2-47, PD-2-50, PD-2-51, PD-2-55, PD-2-56, CECT 5763Bt2/SerEEel tank waterEASpain+++
C1, CECT 5762Bt2/SerEHealthy eelEASpain+++
Riu-2Bt2/SerESeawaterEASpain+++
CIP8190Bt2/SerEHuman bloodEAFrance+++
CECT 4868Bt2/SerEDiseased eelEANorway+++
90-2-11Bt2/SerEDiseased eelEADenmark+++
4-8-112Bt2/SerEHuman woundEADenmark+++
94-9-123Bt2/SerESeawaterEADenmark+++
CCUG38521Bt2/SerEHuman bloodNDNDSweden+++
Ö122Bt2/SerEDiseased eelNDNDSweden+++
CECT 4866Bt2/SerEHuman bloodEAAustralia+++
CECT 4865Bt2/SerEDiseased shrimpEATaiwan+++
UE516Bt2/SerEDiseased eelEATaiwan+++
CECT 898, CECT 897, CECT 4174, CECT 4862Bt2/SerEDiseased eelEAJapan+++
95-8-161d, 95-8-162dBt2/SerIDiseased eelEADenmark+++
CECT 4869dBt2/SerIDiseased eelEABelgium+
95-8-7dBt2/SerIDiseased eelEADenmark+++
95-8-6dBt2/SerIDiseased eelEADenmark+
97, 162d, 11028d, vv12, vv32Bt3/SerODiseased humanEABIsrael+++
V. alginolyticus CECT 521TNot tested
V. anguillarum CECT 522TNot tested
V. cholerae CECT 514TNot tested
V. natriegens CECTNot tested
V. parahaemolyticus CECT 511TNot tested
  • a Bt, biotype; NT, nontypeable; SerE, serovar E; SerA, serovar A; SerI, serovar I; SerO, serovar O.

  • b Genotyping data are from Sanjuan et al. (20); E type and C type are according to Rosche et al. (19); A type, B type, and AB type are according to Lee et al. (13). ND, not done.

  • c Translucent strain.

  • d Strains used for whole pilF gene sequencing.