TABLE 1.

Results of qualitative PCR for T. whipplei in sewage plant influxes and stool samples from sewage plant workers and controls

Source (total no. of samples)No. (%) of samples positive for T. whipplei by PCR
Sewage plant influxes (46)17 (37.0)
    Industriala (10)0 (0.0)
    Agriculturala (36)17 (47.2)
Stool samples (242)28 (11.6)
    Sewage plant workers (64)16 (25.0)
    Disease controls (178)12 (6.7)
        Liver cirrhosisb (80)10 (12.5)
            Hepatocellular carcinoma (61)9 (14.8)
            No hepatocellular carcinoma (19)1 (5.3)
        No liver cirrhosisb (98)2 (2.0)
            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13)1 (7.7)
            Coronary artery disease (18)1 (5.6)
            Diabetes mellitus type II (17)0 (0.0)
            Tumors (lungs, pancreas, colon, gall bladder) (13)0 (0.0)
            Intestinal diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) (14)0 (0.0)
            Bile duct stones, pancreatitis (8)0 (0.0)
            Human immunodeficiency virus (1)0 (0.0)
            Kidney, heart, or liver transplantation (9)0 (0.0)
            Blood disorders (myelodysplastic syndrome, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia) (5)0 (0.0)
  • a P = 0.008 for industrial versus agricultural influxes (Fisher's exact test).

  • b P = 0.014 for patients with liver cirrhosis versus patients without liver cirrhosis (χ2 test with Yates' correction).