Experimental conditions for studies assaying survival of respiratory viruses on fomites

Virus (reference)Suspension mediumTemp (°C)% HumidityFomiteSurvival (h)(Ki)aT90 (h)T99 (h)
Influenza A virus (9)Dulbecco's PBSb27.8-28.335-40Stainless steel720.02783047
Magazine, plastic480.0417310
Pajamas, handkerchief240.0833410
Influenza B virus (9)Dulbecco's PBS26.7-28.955-56Stainless steel720.04171237
Handkerchief, tissue480.333<1<1
Avian influenza virus (73)EMEMc with Earle's saltsRoom tempNot specifiedStainless steel1440.0138048
Latex gloves1440.013800
Coronavirus 229E (64)Dulbecco's PBS2155-70Aluminum120.1675.259
Sterile sponges120.1675.757
Latex gloves60.3334.15.75
Coronavirus OC43 (64)Dulbecco's PBS2155-70Aluminum30.251.53
Sterile sponges2111
Latex gloves2111
Parainfluenza virus 2 (12)MEMd22Not specifiedStainless steel100.53.756
Lab coat60.75NDfND
Facial tissue21.5NDND
Respiratory syncytial virus (33)MEMd with pooled nasal secretions22.25-25.2535-50Formica countertop80.6252.83.3
Countertop w/ secretions80.7140.52.5
Rhinovirus 14 (61)TPBe or nasal secretions2215-25Steel disc w/ TPB>25<0.225>25
Steel w/ nasal discharge>251.252.54
45-55Steel w/ TPB>25<0.225>25
Steel w/ nasal discharge>250.62568
75-85Steel w/ TPB>25<0.225>25
Steel w/ nasal discharge>250.62548
  • a Inactivation coefficient (Ki) = log10 reduction in virus titer per ml = (initial viral titer − final viral titer)/survival (in hours) (64).

  • b PBS, phosphate buffer solution.

  • c EMEM, Eagle's minimal essential medium.

  • d MEM, minimal essential medium.

  • e TPB, tryptose phosphate broth.

  • f ND, not done due to lack of data.