TABLE 3.

Coinfections of Ixodes ricinus, potential reservoir hosts, and mode of acquisitiona

Developmental stage/sex of ticksPathogen speciesReservoir host preferencesAcquisition of coinfection
BorreliaBorreliaRickettsiaBabesiaAnaplasma
F afzelii microti R + RSIM
F afzelii microti R + RSIM
F afzelii helvetica R + R/DSIM or CON
F valaisiana helvetica R + R/DSIM or CON
F valaisiana helvetica R + R/DSIM or CON
F valaisiana helvetica R + R/DSIM or CON
F valaisiana phagocytophilum R + B/DCON
F helvetica phagocytophilum R/D + B/DSIM or CON
F helvetica sp. EU1R/D + DSIM or CON
F garinii ST3 garinii ST7B + BSIM
F garinii ST6 valaisiana B + BSIM
F garinii ST6 valaisiana B + BSIM
F garinii DC valaisiana Unclear + BSIM or CON
F burgdorferi sensu strictoSpecies unclearR/B + UnclearSIM or CON
M afzelii microti R + RSIM
M afzelii sp. EU1R + DCON
M afzelii sp. EU1R + DCON
M garinii helvetica R/B + R/DSIM or CON
M garinii helvetica B + R/DCON
M garinii sp. EU1 phagocytophilum B + D + B/DCON
M afzelii burgdorferi sensu strictoR + R/BSIM or CON
M afzelii spielmanii R + RSIM
M afzelii spielmanii R + RSIM
M garinii burgdorferi sensu strictoR/B + R/BSIM or CON
M garinii valaisiana R/B + BSIM or CON
M garinii valaisiana R/B + BSIM or CON
M garinii ST7 valaisiana B + BSIM
M garinii DC valaisiana Unclear + BSIM or CON
M valaisiana burgdorferi sensu strictoB + R/BSIM or CON
N afzelii helvetica R + R/DSIM or CON
N afzelii helvetica R + R/DSIM or CON
N afzelii microti R + RSIM
N afzelii microti R + RSIM
N afzelii microti R + RSIM
N garinii ST6 valaisiana sp. EU1B + B + DCON
N helvetica phagocytophilum R/D + B/DSIM or CON
N helvetica phagocytophilum R/D + B/DSIM or CON
N helvetica sp. EU1R/D + B/DSIM or CON
N afzelii garinii R + R/BSIM or CON
N afzelii burgdorferi sensu strictoR + R/BSIM or CON
N garinii ST3 valaisiana B + BSIM
N garinii ST5 garinii ST6B + BSIM
N garinii ST5 garinii ST6B + BSIM
N garinii DC valaisiana Unclear + BSIM or CON
  • a N, nymph; M, male; F, female; ST, serotype; DC, distinct cluster; R, rodents; B, birds; D, deer; SIM, simultaneously; CON, consecutively. Reservoir host preferences were taken from the literature (4, 12, 18, 30, 34, 53).