TABLE 2.

Performance statistics for tests in which MST methods were tested with reference samples to determine the ability or failure to detect the sole source of fecal contamination

TestaTargetHost categorySample typeSensitivity (n)bSpecificity (n)cReference(s)
Isolate-by-isolate classification
    ARAE. coliHumanBlind samples1.00 (7)0.80 (5)41
    ARAFecal coliformsHumanBlind samples0.43 (7)1.00 (5)41
    ARAEnterococciHumanBlind samples0.75 (4)0.25 (8)41
    ARAFecal streptococciHumanBlind samples1.00 (4)0.38 (8)41
    MARE. coliHumanBlind samples1.00 (7)0.00 (5)41
    Carbon source utilizationE. coliHumanBlind samples1.00 (7)0.20 (5)41
    Carbon source utilizationFecal streptococciHumanBlind samples1.00 (4)0.25 (8)41
    Coliphage, F+ RNA, genotyping or sequencingProbes and primers describedHumanBlind samples0.33, 0.67 (3)0.75, 1.00 (4)26
    Coliphage, F+ RNA, genotyping or sequencingProbes and primers describedNonhumanBlind samples0.00, 0.00 (4)0.33, 0.33 (3)26
    Ribotyping (EcoRI/PvuII) (two trials)E. coliHumanBlind samples0.88, 1.00 (6, 8)0.00, 0.50 (1, 4)74
    Ribotyping (PstI)EnterococciHumanBlind samples1.00 (8)0.00 (4)74
    PFGE (XbaI)E. coliHumanBlind samples0.88 (8)0.50 (4)74
    Box-PCR (three trials)E. coliHumanBlind samples1.00 each (8)0.00-0.50 (4)74
Marker detection
    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron PCRB.thetaF/B.thetaRHumanIndividual feces0.92 (25)0.98 (241)11
    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron PCRB.thetaF/B.thetaRHumanWastewater1.00 (20)NR (NR)d11
    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron PCRPrimers, two internal probes describedHumanIndividual feces0.78 (9)0.76 (71)57
    Bacteroidales PCR (two trials)HF183F, HF134F/Bac708RHumanBlind samples0.70, 1.00 (10, 14)1.00, 1.00 (6, 7)26
    Bacteroidales PCRHF183F/Bac708RHumanIndividual feces0.20-0.85 (7-25)0.85-1.00 (46-73)6
    Bacteroidales PCRHF183F/Bac708RHumanWastewater1.00 (41)1.00 (75)6, 9, 11, 91
    Bacteroidales qPCRHF183F/reverse primer describedHumanIndividual feces0.86 (7)1.00 (19)91
    Bacteroidales qPCRHF183F/reverse primer describedHumanWastewater1.00 (4)NR (NR)91
    Bacteroidales PCR (two trials)CF128F, CF193F/Bac708RRuminants and pseudoruminantsBlind samples1.00 (7, 9)0.89, 0.92 (9, 12)26
    Bacteroidales PCRCF128F/Bac708RCattleIndividual feces1.00 (19)0.73 (40)6
    Bacteroidales PCRCF128F/Bac708RRuminants and pseudoruminantsIndividual feces0.97, 1.00 (31, 20)1.00, 1.00 (20, 28)6, 27
    Bacteroidales PCRCF128F/Bac708RRuminants and pseudoruminantsWastewater1.00 (75)0.93 (14)9
    Bacteroidales PCRCF193F/Bac708RCattleIndividual feces1.00 (19)0.70 (40)6
    Bacteroidales PCRCF193F/Bac708RRuminants and pseudoruminantsIndividual feces1.00 (31)1.00 (28)6
    Bacteroidales PCRDF475F/Bac708RDogBlind samples0.40 (15)0.86 (7)26
    Bacteroides fragilis phageHost strain HSP40Human/nonhumanWastewater1.00 (36)0.90 (20)98
    Bacteroides fragilis phageHost strain HSP40Human/nonhumanFecal samples0.13 (90)1.00 (145)33
    Sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteriaPhenotypic, human bifid sorbitol agarHumanWastewater1.00 (4)1.00 (2)17
    Bifidobacterium adolescentis PCRBi-ADO 1/2HumanWastewater1.00 (22)0.84 (60)8
    Bifidobacterium adolescentis colony hybridizationS-S-B.ado-0182-a-S-27HumanIndividual feces0.92 (12)1.00 (85)63
    Bifidobacterium adolescentis colony hybridizationS-S-B.ado-0182-a-S-27HumanWastewater0.67 (3)1.00 (3)63
    Enterococcus faecium enrichment, PCResp markerHumanSeptic systems0.80 (10)1.00 (59)88
    Enterococcus faecium enrichment, PCResp markerHumanWastewater1.00 (55)1.00 (43)88
    Escherichia coli toxin geneSTIbHumanBlind samples0.75 (15)0.33 (7)26
    Escherichia coli toxin geneLTIIaCattleWastewater0.87 (31)1.00 (207)55
    Escherichia coli enrichment, PCRSTII or STbSwineWastewater0.90 (31)1.00 (217)56
    Escherichia coli enrichment, PCRSTII or STbSwineIndividual fecesNR (NR)1.00 (224)56
    Adenovirus, nested PCRPrimers describedHumanWastewater0.92 (12)1.00 (31)64
    Adenovirus, nested PCRPrimers describedHumanBlind samples0.50 (8)1.00 (3)75
    Adenovirus, nested PCRPrimers describedSwineThree to five individual feces0.74 (23)1.00 (20)64
    Adenovirus, nested PCRPrimers describedCattleThree to five individual feces0.75 (8)1.00 (35)64
    Enterovirus, RT-PCRPrimers describedHumanBlind samples0.38 (8)1.00 (4)75
    Enterovirus, RT-PCRPrimers describedCattleIndividual feces0.76 (95)0.63 (54)62
    Enterovirus, RT-PCRPrimers describedCattle, deerIndividual feces0.63 (145)0.75 (4)62
    Enterovirus, qRT-PCRPrimers and probe describedCattleIndividual feces0.78 (193)0.42 (100)51
    Teschovirus, qRT-PCRPTV-1 (329-394)SwineWastewater1.00 (6)1.00 (unknown)52
  • a ARA, antibiotic resistance analysis; MAR, multiple antibiotic resistance; Rep-PCR, repetitive DNA element PCR; PFGE, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR; qRT-PCR, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR.

  • b Sensitivity is the ability to detect a source when it is present and is calculated by dividing the number of true-positive results by the number of samples that should contain the target.

  • c Specificity is the ability to detect a source when it is not present and is calculated by dividing the number of true-negative results by the number of samples that should not contain the target.

  • d NR, not reported.