TABLE 1.

Site descriptions and potential fecal impacts at the sample sites in the study area, with sites on individual waterways listed in upstream order

SiteDescription
South Nation River
    MST-2Stream buffering is minimal along the banks of the South Nation River. This site receives more overland flow from northern Casselman due to its proximity to this part of the community.
    MST-1Water samples collected at the water intake for the community of Casselman. Drainage from southern Casselman is released about 1.7 km upstream of the water sampling site.
    MST-11Dairy operations on river are near the site, with pasturing about 400 m upstream. Forage and cropland line the waterway with a relatively low bank slope.
    MST-8Sample collected from bridge in town of St. Albert. Municipal lagoon is situated upstream (2.6 km). Little riparian buffering is present. The community of Crysler is roughly 4.7 km upstream, potentially providing fecal contamination due to faulty septic systems and related urban waste.
    MST-7Sample collected from bridge in community of Crysler. Urban development high but abruptly grades to agricultural (cash and livestock cropping) within a few kilometers upstream. Natural riparian buffering is limited near the site. One dairy operation is 3 km upstream of the site, located on the bank of the river. A second operation lies 1.5 km from the sampling location but is farther from the river.
Little Castor River
    MST-12Bank slope is relatively high with natural vegetation along river banks. Municipal lagoon about 8 km upstream and a trailer park 6.5 km upstream. Tile drain outlets are located along river bank immediately upstream of sampling site.
    MST-13Similar to MST-12 but less concentrated riparian buffering close to the sampling location. Several dairy operations (6 within 2 km of the site) located immediately upstream. Liquid manure applications farther upstream, while solid applications were observed closer to the site on cropland located to the southwest. Contains the highest level of bank slope in close proximity to site compared to other locations.
    MST-5A dairy operation is about 70 m upstream of the sampling site with a second 700 m upstream. Much of the Little Castor bank is more vegetated; however, buffering decreases up the reach from the sampling site. Sewage lagoon within the contributing area. Bank slope close to the site is below average.
Butternut Creek
    MST-10Sample collected from bridge crossing creek very near outlet to South Nation River. There is a dairy operation immediately upstream of sample site with cattle access. A golf course is within several hundred meters of the sampling site. Some urban development in the basin serves as a potential sewage source. Riparian buffering is rather limited. Above-average bank slope is found upstream.
    MST-9Pasturing activity adjacent to the creek, as well as forage activity. Large wetland area within 2 km of the site. Little vegetation (forest and shrubs) immediately at the sampling site. High concentrations of dairy operations (n = 8) fall within 2.5 km of the site. Bank slope is generally low upstream. Poultry operation found about 2 km from the site. Solid manure applications were observed close to the site, while liquid applications were found further upstream.
Castor River, MST-4Banks of river are relatively steep, limiting animal access to river. On the south bank of the sampling site is a dairy operation with pasturing. The waterways are buffered by vegetation (grass, shrubs, trees) along the river and tributaries. A road system and urban development close to this site do not provide suitable habitat for wildlife to access the river. Sewage lagoon 12 km upstream. Solid fertilizer applications were observed.
Payne River, MST-6Significant pastureland intermixed with shrubs along the banks. West about 800 m from this site are several dairy operations. Solid manure applications were observed at many locations adjacent to tributaries of the river. Bank slope is low close to the site.
Rural drainage ditch
    MST-3Sample collected from edge of drainage ditch. The site is adjacent to a 4-lane divided highway. Dairy operations are located about 1.8 and 2.4 km upstream from the sampling site.
    MST-15Sample collected at edge of drainage ditch. The sample site is located in an open pasture that grades to a more natural wooded pasture system with cattle access to waterway. The sampling site has associated cropland and pasture and forage upstream where manures are applied in spring and fall. Bank slope is very low adjacent to the site.