TABLE 1.

General characteristics and culture-based LAB composition of 39 Belgian sourdoughs sampled during the first and second sampling campaigns

Dep.aSample codeFlour typebSCcProvincedAgee (yr)pHfTimeg (h)TemphLAB/yeast ratioSpecies identified by culture-dependent analysisi
D01D01WW01T01WW1E-F53.8310301.72E + 02L. crustorum (2/40), L. helveticus (6/40), L. paralimentarius (9/40), L. plantarum (5/40), L. pontis (9/40), L. rossiae (1/40), L. spicheri (8/40)
D01WW01T02WW2E-F63.5470301.37E + 01L. crustorum (6/33), L. helveticus (3/33), L. paralimentarius (11/33), L. plantarum (4/33), L. pontis (2/33), L. spicheri (7/33)
D01WW01T03WW2E-F63.659302.25E + 01L. crustorum (1/34), L. helveticus (5/34), L. paracasei (1/34), L. paralimentarius (9/34), L. plantarum (5/34), L. pontis (6/34), L. spicheri (7/34)
D02D02WR01T01WR1W-F254.01<24AT7.44E + 04L. curvatus (10/31), L. plantarum (3/31), L. sanfranciscensis (18/31)
D02WR01T02WR1W-F253.8022AT1.16E + 05L. sanfranciscensis (26/26)
D02WR01T03WR2W-F263.6612AT1.91E + 05L. sanfranciscensis (29/29)
D02WW01T01WW1W-F23.8322AT2.87E + 03L. sakei (1/29), L. sanfranciscensis (28/29)
D02WW01T02WW2W-F34.4526AT2.02E + 03L. sanfranciscensis (28/28)
D03D03WW01T01WW1W-F64.124302.67E + 01L. paralimentarius (22/40), L. pontis (12/40), L. rossiae (6/40)
D03WW01T02WW2W-F73.5030AT2.30E + 01L. paralimentarius (2/18), L. pontis (10/18), L. rossiae (6/18)
D04D04WW01T01WW1BW15.000AT2.27E + 05L. sakei (24/38), L. sanfranciscensis (12/38), L. mesenteroides (2/38)
D04WW01T02WW2BW24.131AT5.64E + 03L. sanfranciscensis (12/12)
D04WW01T03WW2BW24.510AT5.69E + 06L. sanfranciscensis (12/12)
D05D05WW01T01WW1E-F13.6324285.20E + 01L. crustorum (1/40), L. helveticus (9/40), L. paracasei (1/40), L. pontis (14/40), L. sanfranciscensis (15/40)
D05WW01T02WW2E-F23.5725282.00E + 01L. helveticus (1/28), L. pontis (12/28), L. sanfranciscensis (15/28)
D06D06SS01T01SS1L1.55.04221-231.41E + 03L. curvatus (1/40), L. plantarum (10/40), L. sakei (1/40), P. pentosaceus (2/40), W. cibaria (26/40)
D06SS01T02SS2L2.54.45221-239.35E + 03L. sanfranciscensis (30/30)
D06WW01T01WW1L124.75221-238.97E + 02L. paralimentarius (2/41), L. plantarum (12/41), L. sanfranciscensis (7/41), P. pentosaceus (3/41), W. cibaria (17/41)
D07D07WR01T01WR1H0.83.8313261.23E + 01L. brevis (1/41), L. fermentum (14/41), L. paralimentarius (9/41), L. pontis (15/41), P. pentosaceus (2/41)
D07WR01T02WR1H0.83.8613264.98E + 00E. mundtii (1/40), L. brevis (1/40), L. fermentum (14/40), L. paralimentarius (16/40), L. pontis (5/40), W. confusa (2/40)
D07WR01T03WR2H23.6442261.40E + 01L. brevis (4/23), L. paracasei (1/23), L. paralimentarius (14/23), L. rossiae (3/23), P. acidilactici (3/23)
D07WR02T01WR1H0.013.7812AT8.17E + 01L. fermentum (33/39), L. pontis (3/39), P. acidilactici (3/39)
D08D08WW01T01WW1N153.806AT1.86E + 02L. buchneri (1/40), L. parabuchneri (8/40), L. plantarum (27/40), L. rossiae (4/40)
D08SS01T01SS2N163.768AT2.80E + 01L. plantarum (1/29), L. sanfranciscensis (28/29)
D09D09ME01T01ME1N43.78<24AT1.40E + 01L. brevis (1/40), L. hammesii (14/40), L. namurensis (6/40), L. paralimentarius (19/40)
D09ME01T02ME2N53.7212AT1.50E + 01L. brevis (1/30), L. hammesii (7/30), L. namurensis (3/30), L. paralimentarius (18/30), L. plantarum (1/30)
D10D10SS01T01SS1Lux34.284284.92E + 02L. pontis (5/15), L. sanfranciscensis (9/15)
D10SS01T02SS2Lux44.741281.19E + 05L. sanfranciscensis (30/30)
D10WR01T01WR1Lux33.964283.28E + 02L. pontis (3/9), L. sanfranciscensis (4/7)
D10WW01T01WW1Lux34.094284.53E + 02L. pontis (4/9), L. sanfranciscensis (4/9), P. pentosaceus (1/9)
D10WW01T02WW2Lux44.781285.10E + 03L. sanfranciscensis (30/30)
D11D11RR01T01RR1N23.7912AT4.17E + 01L. hammesii (11/38), L. paralimentarius (26/38), L. plantarum (1/38)
D11RR01T02RR2N34.5912.5AT2.11E + 01L. brevis (1/29), L. hammesii (7/29), L. nantensis (16/29), L. plantarum (5/29)
D11SS01T01SS1N23.8312AT5.38E + 01L. brevis (5/40), L. hammesii (12/40), L. nantensis (1/40), L. paralimentarius (15/40), L. plantarum (7/40)
D11SS01T02SS2N34.1612.5AT1.90E + 01L. brevis (4/30), L. hammesii (5/30), L. nantensis (16/30), L. plantarum (4/30), L. rossiae (1/30)
D11WW01T01WW1N23.7212AT7.23E + 01L. brevis (7/40), L. hammesii (8/40), L. nantensis (4/40), L. paralimentarius (13/40), L. plantarum (8/40)
D11WW01T02WW2N34.4112.5AT2.29E + 01L. brevis (3/29), L. hammesii (4/29), L. nantensis (11/29), L. plantarum (10/29), W. confusa (1/29)
D11WW02T01WW1N23.8512AT3.73E + 01L. hammesii (14/40), L. nantensis (2/40), L. paralimentarius (20/40), L. plantarum (4/40)
D11WW02T02WW2N34.1712.5AT3.27E + 01L. brevis (5/26), L. hammesii (4/26), L. nantensis (10/26), L. plantarum (7/26)
  • a Depositor.

  • b Type of flour: WW, wheat; SS, spelt; RR, rye; WR, wheat-rye; ME, wheat-rye-spelt.

  • c Sampling campaign 1 or 2.

  • d Province: E-F, East-Flanders; W-F, West-Flanders; BW, Brabant Wallon; L, Liège; H, Hainaut; N, Namur; Lux, Luxembourg.

  • e Age of the mother dough in years.

  • f Each value is the average from three independent analyses, and the standard deviation was always less than 5%.

  • g Fermentation time.

  • h Fermentation temperature; AT, ambient temperature.

  • i P. pentosaceus, Pediococcus pentosaceus; W. cibaria, Weissella cibaria; W. confusa, Weissella confusa; E. mundtii, Enterococcus mundtii; P. acidilactici, Pediococcus acidilactici; L. mesenteroides, Leuconostoc mesenteroides; all others belong to the genus Lactobacillus. For each sample, the number of isolates of each species relative to the total number of identified isolates is indicated in parentheses.