TABLE 1

Historical timeline and characteristics of metallo-β-lactamases discovered up to December 2017

MBL subclass and enzymeYr detectedSpecies in which first detectedNo. of variantsCountry(ies) of originβ-Lactam antibiotic hydrolysis profileGenetic location(s)Accession no.Reference(s)
B1
    BcII1966Bacillus cereus7UruguayBroad spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeM1118932, 33, 89, 90
    CcrA or CfiA1990Bacteroides fragilis25EnglandBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAB08722591, 92
    IMP1994Serratia marcescens67JapanBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmid, chromosomeHM03607993, 94
    BlaB1998Elizabethkingia meningoseptica15aBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAF18929895, 96, 97
    VIM1999Pseudomonas aeruginosa54ItalyBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmid, chromosomeGU72486894, 98
    IND1999Chryseobacterium indologenes16FranceBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmid, chromosomeEF39443699
    EBR2002Empedobacter brevis1FranceNarrow-spectrum cephalosporinsChromosomeAF416700100
    SPM2002P. aeruginosa1BrazilBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmid, chromosomeGU831565101, 102
    Bla2003Bacillus anthracis2Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeX6224471
    GIM2004P. aeruginosa2GermanyBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmidJF414726103
    SIM2005Acinetobacter baumannii2KoreaBroad-array β-lactams, narrow carbapenemPlasmid, chromosomeGQ288397104
    SLB2005Shewanella livingstonensis1IslandsBroad spectrumChromosomeAY590118105
    SFB2005Shewanella frigidimarina1IslandsNarrow spectrumChromosomeAY590119105
    PEDO-32015Pedobacter kyungheensis1United KingdomBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_049959106
    JOHN2003Flavobacterium johnsoniae1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAY02846107
    CGB2002Chryseobacterium gleum1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeEF672680108
    MUS2002Myroides odoratimimus2Broad spectrum, exception of aztreonamChromosomeAF441286109, 110
    TUS2002Myroides odoratus1Large spectrum, exception of aztreonamChromosomeAF441287109
    KHM2008Citrobacter freundii1JapanBroad-spectrum β-lactamPlasmidAB364006111
    DIM2010Pseudomonas stutzeri1NetherlandsBroad spectrum, exception of aztreonamPlasmidGU323019112
    NDM2008Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli18IndiaBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmid, chromosomeJQ08030537, 113, 114, 115
    HMB2017P. aeruginosa1GermanyBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_052225116
    FIM2012P. aeruginosa1ItalyBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeJX570731117
    MOCM. odoratus1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeKX371616Unpublished
    TMB2012Achromobacter sp.2LibyaBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeFR771847118, 119
    GRD232016Proteobacteria1DenmarkBroad-spectrum β-lactamsPlasmidKU167043120
    SPN792016Proteobacteria1SpainBroad-spectrum β-lactamsUnknownKU167036120
    VarG2017Vibrio cholerae1Large spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAAF94716121
B2
    CphA1990Aeromonas hydrophila17ItalyNarrow spectrum, more strictly carbapenemsChromosomeAY26137863, 122, 123
    ImiS1996Aeromonas veronii1United KingdomNarrow spectrum, more strictly carbapenemsChromosomeY10415124, 125
    ImiH2003A. hydrophila1AustraliaNarrow spectrum, more strictly carbapenemsChromosomeAJ548797126
    CEPH-A3A. veronii1Narrow spectrum, more strictly carbapenemsAY112998Unpublished
    Sfh2003Serratia fonticola1PortugalNarrow spectrum, more strictly carbapenemsChromosomeAF197943127
B3
    L-11982Stenotrophomonas maltophilia19Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAJ272109128, 129, 130
    FEZ2000Legionella gormanii1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeY17896131
    GOB2000E. meningoseptica19FranceBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAF09014197, 132
    THIN-B2001Janthinobacterium lividum1ItalyBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAJ250876133
    MBL1b2001Caulobacter crescentus1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAJ315850134
    CAU2002Caulobacter vibrioides2Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAJ308331135
    BJP2006Bradyrhizobium japonicum1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNP_772870136
    AIM2012P. aeruginosa1AustraliaLarge spectrum, including aztreonamPlasmidAM998375137, 138
    CAR2008Erwinia carotovora1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNC_004547139
    POM2011Pseudomonas otitidis1Broad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeEU315252140, 141
    PAM2013Pseudomonas alcaligenes1JapanBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAB858498142
    PEDO2015Pedobacter roseu, Pedobacter borealis2Denmark, NorwayBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_049957106
    CPS2015Chryseobacterium piscium1United KingdomBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_048587106, 143
    ESP2015Eristalis tenax2United KingdomBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_049088106
    MSI2015Massilia oculi1SpainBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_049323106
    SPG2015Sphingomonas sp.1NorwayBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeNG_050139106
    Rm32016From soil sample1United KingdomBroad-spectrum β-lactamsKF485393144
    LRA2009J. lividum8United States (Alaska)Broad-spectrum β-lactamsEU408347145
    SMB2011S. marcescens1JapanBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeAB636283146
    GRD332016Gemmatimona1DenmarkBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeKU167042120
    CRD32016Erythrobacter1DenmarkBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeKU167037120
    DHT22016S. maltophilia1GermanyBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeKU167035120
    ALG62016J. lividum1AlgeriaBroad-spectrum β-lactamsChromosomeKU167038120
    ALG112016Burkholderia1AlgeriaBroad-spectrum β-lactamsKU167039120
    EAM2012Erythrobacter aquimaris1FranceBroad-spectrum β-lactams, specific for carbapenemChromosomeJN558591147
    ECM2012Erythrobacter citreus1FranceBroad spectrum, specific for carbapenemChromosomeJN558590147
    EFM2012Erythrobacter flavus1FranceBroad spectrum, specific for carbapenemChromosomeJN558587147
    ELM2012Erythrobacter longus1FranceBroad spectrum, specific for carbapenemChromosomeJN558589147
    EVM2012Erythrobacter vulgaris1FranceBroad spectrum, specific for carbapenemChromosomeJN558588147
    SPR2014Serratia proteamaculans1United StatesBroad spectrum, specific for carbapenemCP000826Unpublished
  • a —, unpublished.