TABLE 1

Average changes in the physical and microbiological parameters during the inoculated and noninoculated box and heap fermentations of cocoa bean pulp turned after 48 and 96 h

Parameter by fermentationInoculationaData by fermentation time (h)b
04896120
Box
    °CS26.73 ± 0.6036.20 ± 1.5341.88 ± 1.7843.70 ± 2.94
ST26.48 ± 0.3435.10 ± 2.4641.73 ± 2.0642.78 ± 3.68
C26.73 ± 0.6236.20 ± 1.5341.88 ± 1.7843.70 ± 2.94
Avg26.58 ± 0.08 C35.80 ± 1.22 B42.09 ± 0.50 A43.33 ± 0.70 A
    pHS3.55 ± 0.033.88 ± 0.164.15 ± 0.113.96 ± 0.18
ST3.54 ± 0.014.00 ± 0.164.20 ± 0.154.18 ± 0.26
C3.55 ± 0.033.88 ± 0.174.27 ± 0.113.96 ± 0.18
Avg3.57 ± 0.03 C4.08 ± 0.11 B4.31 ± 0.09 A4.15 ± 0.17 AB
    Log CFU
        YeastS7.08 ± 0.057.19 ± 0.15NCNC
ST7.14 ± 0.017.05 ± 0.06NCNC
C7.19 ± 0.177.55 ± 0.27NCNC
Avg7.14 ± 0.11 A7.26 ± 0.29 ANCNC
        LABS5.38 ± 0.307.18 ± 0.025.11 ± 1.286.75 ± 0.17
ST6.13 ± 0.226.85 ± 0.274.33 ± 0.387.35 ± 0.25
C6.21 ± 0.746.88 ± 0.404.00 ± 0.005.49 ± 0.59
Avg5.91 ± 0.61 B6.97 ± 0.31 A5.44 ± 2.85 C6.55 ± 0.94 A
        AABS6.41 ± 0.117.01 ± 0.125.54 ± 1.785.63 ± 1.88
ST6.28 ± 0.216.96 ± 0.065.60 ± 1.847.34 ± 0.09
C6.28 ± 0.257.31 ± 0.264.00 ± 0.005.76 ± 0.49
Avg6.32 ± 0.20 A7.09 ± 0.23 A5.05 ± 2.01 B6.69 ± 2.85 A
Heap
    °CS28.20 ± 1.1538.17 ± 0.7536.57 ± 1.8040.07 ± 0.12
ST27.37 ± 0.3239.00 ± 2.2136.57 ± 0.9039.38 ± 0.32
C26.27 ± 0.0638.97 ± 0.3239.37 ± 2.5740.30 ± 0.56
Avg27.28 ± 0.97 C38.71 ± 0.47 B38.40 ± 1.59 B40.07 ± 0.23 A
    pHS3.55 ± 0.014.24 ± 0.174.48 ± 0.794.90 ± 0.97
ST3.53 ± 0.014.32 ± 0.234.05 ± 0.404.52 ± 0.74
C3.50 ± 0.053.87 ± 0.084.24 ± 0.293.99 ± 0.33
Avg3.54 ± 0.02 B4.28 ± 0.24 A4.26 ± 0.21 A4.71 ± 0.90 A
    Log CFU
        YeastS7.16 ± 0.927.80 ± 0.157.13 ± 0.168.03 ± 0.29
ST6.76 ± 0.857.72 ± 0.157.24 ± 1.417.43 ± 0.07
C7.02 ± 0.716.62 ± 0.026.34 ± 0.047.24 ± 0.28
Avg6.98 ± 0.20 C7.38 ± 0.66 B6.90 ± 0.48 D7.57 ± 0.41 A
        LABS5.67 ± 0.257.28 ± 0.197.36 ± 0.047.69 ± 0.28
ST5.95 ± 0.297.07 ± 0.097.00 ± 0.017.50 ± 0.04
C5.72 ± 0.036.17 ± 0.217.40 ± 0.048.10 ± 0.13
Avg5.78 ± 0.15 D6.84 ± 0.59 C7.25 ± 0.22 B7.76 ± 0.30 A
        AABS6.20 ± 0.236.81 ± 0.148.33 ± 0.027.80 ± 0.18
ST5.70 ± 0.047.15 ± 0.288.08 ± 0.117.66 ± 0.01
C6.60 ± 0.045.65 ± 0.158.42 ± 0.028.56 ± 0.04
Avg6.17 ± 0.45 D6.54 ± 0.79 C8.28 ± 0.18 A8.00 ± 0.49 B
  • a S, S. cerevisiae; ST, S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii; C, noninoculated.

  • b Values are expressed as the mean ± SD from triplicate determinations. Different letters indicate statistical differences related to the fermentation period using the least significant difference test (P < 0.05). P values were adjusted using Bonferroni's method. NC, below the detection limit.