TABLE 1

BAC concentrations found or allowed in commercial products, the environment, and substances to which microbes are resistant or tolerant and that cause toxic effects

DescriptionaCategorybReported BAC concncReferenced
BAC-C12 detected in wastewater treatment influents (maximum amt)E170 μg/liter101
BACs detected in food samples (maximum amt)E14.4 mg/kg38
Groundwater and reclaimed waterEUp to 0.2 μg/liter36
Wastewater samplesEUp to 37 μg/liter102
Wastewater sites that included hospital, laundry, dairy, swimming pools, paper productionEUp to 2.8 mg/liter for BAC-C12, 1.1 mg/liter for BAC-C14, 0.027 mg/liter for BAC-C1633
Effluents from European hospitalsE0.05 to 6.03 mg/liter34
Sediment samples from metropolitan region of the lower Hudson BasinE1.5 mg/kg37
Wastewater treatment plantEUp to 0.17 mg/liter32
Wastewater from hospital and laundryE2.8 and 2.1 mg/liter32
Municipal sewage sludge in ChinaE0.09−191 mg/kg103
Ophthalmological solutionsP0.003–0.02%29
Hair conditionerP0.5–2%5
Zephiran chloride recommended concn after dilution of 17% product concentrateP0.03–0.2%104
MosquitocideP200 ppm3
Legislation limits for food processing plants, equipment, and utensilsP200–400 ppm3
Maximum concn that can be safely used in contact products, according to the American College of ToxicologyP0.10%23
Disinfectant (Lysol)P0.1% (wt/vol)35
Maximum allowed wastewater for rinse-off hair products (Europe)P3%105
Disinfectant in food-processing areas (Denmark) before 2016P3%106
Preservative (Denmark) before 2016P0.10%106
Biocidal preservative in masonry (France/UK) before 2016P<2.5%106
Water preservative for cooling systems (Denmark) before 2016P9–50%106
Chemical toilets before 2016P10–15%106
Antimicrobial soaps and antiseptics (Hy-G-Clenz; Global Industrial Advanced; Neosporin wound cleanser for kids, cleanse antibacterial hand soap)P0.13%NA
Maximum allowed BACs in food products in Europe regulation 1119/2014/EUP0.1 mg/kg9
MIC of BACs for L. monocytogenes isolates from food-processing plantsR7 mg/liter50
Pseudomonas strain resistant to ammonium acetate-buffered BACsR0.40%43
MIC of BACs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to BACsR5–10 mg/liter52
MIC of BACs for Escherichia coli K-12 resistant to BACsR92 mg/liter53
MIC of BACs for Salmonella strain resistant to BACsR256 mg/liter54
MIC of BACs for E. coli O157 resistant to BACsR1,024 mg/liter54
MIC of BACs for L. monocytogenes in BACsR40 mg/liter107
MIC of BACs for E. coli HB101 parent strains and strain overexpressing mdfAR50 and 400 mg/liter72
MIC of BACs for E. coli KAM32 parent strain and strain overexpressing pmpMR1.2 and 37.5 mg/liter74
P. aeruginosa (nonadapted and adapted) tolerance to BACsR1,200 and 1,600 mg/liter56
MIC of BACs for L. monocytogenes wild-type and with emrE deletionR30 and 10 mg/liter71
MIC of BACs for multiple isolates of P. aeruginosa strainsR70–625 mg/liter93
MIC of BACs for E. coli strains before and after adaptation to BACs, respectivelyR25 and 150 mg/liter89
MIC of BACs for Listeria spp. with BAC resistanceR35–40 mg/liter77
MIC of BACs for isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanniiR4–64 μg/liter92
MIC of BACs for P. aeruginosaR0.45 mM84
MIC of BACs for E. coliR0.225 mM84
MIC of BACs for L. monocytogenes after adaptationR30 mg/liter55
MIC of BACs for Campylobacter coli after adaptation for 15 daysR2 mg/liter46
MIC of BACs for P. aeruginosa after adaptation to BACs for 30 daysR350 mg/liter60
MBC of BACs for MRSA and MRSP isolatesR2.1–135 mg/liter108
Inhibition of growth for planktonic cells of S. Typhimurium, no effect over mature biofilms from the same strainR0.01%80
Causes skin irritationT0.5–1%20
Toxic effects to human conjunctival cells (in vitro)T0.0001–0.1%22
Algal growth inhibitionT0.255 mg/liter31
NOAEC for aquatic invertebratesT4.15 μg ai/liter3
Chronic NOAEC for mammalsT44 mg/kg/day3
Chronic effects in fishT32.2 μg ai/liter3
Genotoxic effects in plant and mammalian cells (in vitro)T1 mg/liter21
Toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean)T0.004 mg/liter30
Superficial cell loss observed in the cornea of rabbits with an ophthalmological solution containing BACsT0.02%25
  • a MBC, minimal bactericidal concentration; MRSP, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius; NOAEC, no observable adverse effect concentration.

  • b P, commercial products; E, environment; R, substance to which microbes are resistant or tolerant; T, causes toxic effects.

  • c ai, active ingredient.

  • d NA, not applicable.