TABLE 3

Mutations identified in coding regions in the 2,000th generation clonesa

GeneFunctionMutationIdentification of a mutation in clone:
H9-1H9-2B11-1B11-2F11-1F11-2F9-2F9-3
adiYActivator of adiAMissense (R119P)XX
fluAG43 transport (biofilm)Missense (A162E)XX
ftsXCell division (IM transporter)Missense (A101V)XX
fucIl-Fucose isomeraseMissense (R363S)XX
gcvPGlycine decarboxylaseMissense (T854A)X
hepARNAP recycling factorInsertion (1139, +G)XX
icdIsocitrate dehydrogenaseMissense (D398E)XXXXXX
menHMenaquinone biosynthesisMissense (D79Y)XX
metEHomocysteine transmethylaseMissense (R337S)X
mhpBPhenylpropionate degradationMissense (D226Y)X
mppAMurein tripeptide transporterInsertion (970, +A)XX
msbALipid A transport IM to OMMissense (G150C)XX
rlmE23S rRNA methyltransferaseMissense (P157L)X
rpoBRNAP beta subunitMissense (A679V)XX
rpoCRNAP beta prime subunitMissense (I774S)XX
rpoCRNAP beta prime subunitMissense (V507L)XX
rpoDRNAP sigma 70Missense (M273I)XX
sprMurein endopeptidaseMissense (Q73K)X
wzzEECA polysaccharide chain lengthMissense (P314Q)XX
yeiHIM proteinMissense (A245S)X
yejMIM hydrolaseInsertion (position 531) of 9 bp (TTTATCGCC)XXXX
yfdIIM proteinMissense (V7L)X
yfjKIonizing radiation resistanceMissense (T400I)X
yjiKIM proteinSilent (TCG → TCA)X
  • a The genomes of the experimental clones and the ancestral strain were sequenced and aligned with the sequence of the E. coli K-12 W3110 reference genome (35) using the breseq computational pipeline (http://barricklab.org/breseq). The mutations listed represent differences between the genome of the ancestor and the adapted clones, excluding intergenic mutations. An X signifies that the mutation is present in that clone. IM, inner membrane; OM, outer membrane; ECA, enterobacterial common antigen.