TABLE 1

Diversity metrics for microbial communities found for queens across the developmental stages of queen rearing and for the workers that were associated with them at each stage

Bee typeOTUsa (97% avg)Inv SimpsonbP valuec
Larvae48.53.670.007
Newly emerged queens110.712.41<0.0001
Mature queens26.11.880.9
Workers26.95.45
  • a Average numbers of OTUs with 97% identity differ dramatically between larvae and newly emerged queens versus workers.

  • b Inverse of the Simpson diversity estimator.

  • c P values determined by t tests are the results of pairwise comparisons of diversity, i.e., OTUs of worker microbiomes and queen microbiomes at each developmental stage.