TABLE 1

Backgrounds of the subjectsa

ParameterPlacebo group (n = 24)L. casei strain Shirota group (n = 23)P value
Age (yr)22.8 ± 0.322.8 ± 0.40.98
Sex (male/female)13/1112/11
BMI20.5 ± 0.420.8 ± 0.40.63
STAI-state score40.0 ± 1.542.0 ± 1.90.41
STAI-trait score43.7 ± 1.745.9 ± 2.20.42
GHQ-28 score4.8 ± 0.75.0 ± 0.80.82
HPI score4.8 ± 0.34.9 ± 0.30.85
NEO-FFI
    Neuroticism24.9 ± 1.425.3 ± 1.40.85
    Extraversion27.4 ± 1.427.0 ± 1.10.82
    Openness29.5 ± 1.227.7 ± 1.30.30
    Agreeableness30.8 ± 1.029.0 ± 1.00.24
    Conscientiousness26.6 ± 1.326.2 ± 1.30.84
Salivary cortisol (ng/ml)1.5 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.20.94
  • a Values indicate means ± SE. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test for the questionnaire score and by the unpaired Student's t test for the others.