TABLE 3

Volatiles identified using GC-MS in cocoa liquors made from spontaneous and inoculated cocoa pulp fermentationsa

VolatileConcn (μg/kg)
Robust parentsAromatic parentsAromatic hybridsP. kluyveri Y274Cyb. fabianii Y689S
Y115Y927H28Y184Y397H40H42H57
Aldehydes
    2-Methylbutanal21.6 ± 2.713.3 ± 4.97.2 ± 0.446.5 ± 35.827.9 ± 23.230.8 ± 21.715.5 ± 8.322.7 ± 6.846.9 ± 14.417.7 ± 5.111.3 ± 3.0
    2-Phenyl-2-butenal27.1 ± 16.017.4 ± 1.011.9 ± 3.38.6 ± 1.513.8 ± 1.312.5 ± 2.67.4 ± 2.54.9 ± 2.84.7 ± 0.74.4 ± 1.25.3 ± 1.6
    3-Methylbutanal81.8 ± 10.543.0 ± 1.125.5 ± 2.4105.8 ± 60.864.1 ± 9.693.2 ± 29.848.4 ± 21.681.0 ± 30.182.3 ± 19.742.2 ± 440.9 ± 10.6
    5-Methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal4.7 ± 1.24.7 ± 1.82.1 ± 0.25.3 ± 3.23.9 ± 3.04.4 ± 3.51.6 ± 0.73.4 ± 1.22.9 ± 0.32.3 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.8
    Benzaldehyde70.2 ± 6.250.0 ± 10.134.7 ± 9.932.5 ± 8.658.6 ± 30.068.0 ± 33.937.5 ± 21.927.5 ± 14.421.1 ± 2.621.2 ± 6.219.8 ± 5.5
    Phenylacetaldehyde29.2 ± 1.914.6 ± 6.07.2 ± 0.68.1 ± 0.716.1 ± 10.213.2 ± 0.410.0 ± 3.613.2 ± 10.55.2 ± 2.69.4 ± 2.49.9 ± 1.3
Alcohols
    2-Methyl-1-butanol4.7 ± 5.28.1 ± 2.57.2 ± 0.217.4 ± 1.810.4 ± 9.56.2 ± 2.05.5 ± 1.27.0 ± 1.27.5 ± 3.16.7 ± 2.05.5 ± 1.2
    2-Phenylethanol115.2 ± 12.185.7 ± 14.349.6 ± 26.282.1 ± 1.7103.8 ± 35.562.8 ± 11.940.2 ± 6.859.4 ± 40.241.8 ± 2.536.7 ± 13.948.1 ± 4.3
    Isoamyl alcohol22.7 ± 19.665.0 ± 22.937.3 ± 8.4109.2 ± 12.683.9 ± 92.545.2 ± 20.650.9 ± 6.757.0 ± 5.838.5 ± 2.033.0 ± 5.432.2 ± 6.6
Esters
    2-Heptyl acetate9.4 ± 2.09.0 ± 0.49.1 ± 5.14.7 ± 0.510.1 ± 3.323.0 ± 11.58.7 ± 1.820.4 ± 13.419.3 ± 3.14.4 ± 0.76.6 ± 1.9
    2-Pentyl acetate6.1 ± 0.110.8 ± 6.58.9 ± 0.226.9 ± 6.519.7 ± 13.617.4 ± 6.522.8 ± 2.825.0 ± 12.438.4 ± 2.518.9 ± 4.612.3 ± 6.6
    2-Phenylethyl acetate89.4 ± 9.561.7 ± 6.941.9 ± 23.558.3 ± 4.979.3 ± 48.743.7 ± 5.227.6 ± 0.830.6 ± 16.725.4 ± 0.825.5 ± 5.622.8 ± 5.8
    Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate0.4 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.50.3 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.90.6 ± 0.60.5 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.1
    Ethyl acetate4.0 ± 3.215.3 ± 18.23.1 ± 1.8260.5 ± 98.376.2 ± 105.727.4 ± 36.415.7 ± 12.647.8 ± 21.581.8 ± 12.713.5 ± 7.43.1 ± 1.6
    Ethyl decanoate3.6 ± 1.97.3 ± 0.03.4 ± 2.34.5 ± 0.52.5 ± 0.13.3 ± 2.42.7 ± 0.52.4 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.32.6 ± 0.3
    Ethyl dodecanoate5.2 ± 2.83.4 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.31.8 ± 0.55.6 ± 3.13.6 ± 0.83.7 ± 2.11.5 ± 0.82.3 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.02.1 ± 0.6
    Ethyl hexanoate3.3 ± 0.99.8 ± 2.05.4 ± 1.08.3 ± 0.56.2 ± 1.96.1 ± 1.56.2 ± 0.35.5 ± 1.85.6 ± 1.33.8 ± 0.24.1 ± 0.8
    Ethyl isobutyrate0.6 ± 0.80.4 ± 0.40.1 ± 0.00.7 ± 0.40.6 ± 0.70.4 ± 0.40.1 ± 0.00.2 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.40.9 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.9
    Ethyl isovalerate0.3 ± 0.30.7 ± 0.80.7 ± 0.01.2 ± 0.41.0 ± 0.90.9 ± 0.60.7 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.00.6 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.0
    Ethyl lactate1.0 ± 0.32.1 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.53.4 ± 1.02.1 ± 2.91.2 ± 0.313.6 ± 7.33.9 ± 0.24.3 ± 0.68.8 ± 1.319.7 ± 0.7
    Ethyl octanoate12.5 ± 1.923.9 ± 0.411.5 ± 5.417.9 ± 0.114.7 ± 4.412.2 ± 2.413.6 ± 5.07.3 ± 3.23.6 ± 0.44.2 ± 0.95.8 ± 1.5
    Ethyl phenylacetate6.6 ± 1.14.4 ± 0.02.9 ± 1.33.2 ± 0.23.3 ± 1.42.5 ± 0.42.1 ± 0.92.0 ± 1.41.1 ± 0.32.4 ± 0.22.4 ± 0.8
    Ethyl propanoate0.1 ± 0.00.2 ± 0.20.3 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.30.5 ± 0.60.3 ± 0.30.1 ± 0.00.2 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.0
    Isoamyl acetate31.0 ± 20.6115.3 ± 55.084.9 ± 9.7209.9 ± 33.4224.3 ± 241.1105.9 ± 44.7124.6 ± 14.5125.6 ± 33.1118.3 ± 18.293.5 ± 2.359.2 ± 33.6
    Isobutyl acetate1.8 ± 0.84.7 ± 3.92.6 ± 0.324.1 ± 10.021.5 ± 28.97.3 ± 7.47.0 ± 0.610.4 ± 4.813.6 ± 2.88.0 ± 3.52.6 ± 1.3
    Methyl acetate1.8 ± 0.61.4 ± 0.80.9 ± 0.150.1 ± 51.733.4 ± 45.411.0 ± 14.52.8 ± 2.410.8 ± 1.224.3 ± 2.23.3 ± 0.96.2 ± 2.9
    Methyl lactate0.5 ± 0.60.9 ± 0.40.6 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.00.3 ± 0.32.3 ± 2.32.1 ± 1.81.1 ± 0.41.0 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.02.6 ± 0.6
    Propyl acetate0.4 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.80.4 ± 0.15.6 ± 1.12.0 ± 2.60.8 ± 1.10.7 ± 0.51.0 ± 0.11.1 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.0
Ketones
    1-Hydroxy-2-propanone36.9 ± 8.534.6 ± 0.328.3 ± 1.833.4 ± 6.727.7 ± 5.940.9 ± 0.131.5 ± 8.633.5 ± 0.136.8 ± 1.236.4 ± 1.737.1 ± 9.8
    2-Butanone2.1 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.60.8 ± 0.05.0 ± 1.53.3 ± 2.22.8 ± 1.11.4 ± 0.52.6 ± 1.14.3 ± 0.42.1 ± 0.91.5 ± 0.4
    2-Heptanone6.5 ± 3.413.5 ± 3.510.8 ± 1.18.9 ± 0.011.7 ± 5.423.3 ± 3.613.8 ± 4.028.7 ± 18.336.9 ± 6.07.0 ± 0.38.6 ± 0.6
    2-Nonanone18.5 ± 6.216.4 ± 0.515.2 ± 7.27.8 ± 1.114.6 ± 3.037.0 ± 20.49.6 ± 4.345.8 ± 41.336.4 ± 7.94.6 ± 1.69.5 ± 0.5
    Acetoin598.0 ± 183.6405.6 ± 89.1426.6 ± 19.0388.0 ± 78.8366.7 ± 5.0482.0 ± 163.0602.6 ± 102.2526.9 ± 227.1681.6 ± 214.2811.4 ± 191.21,208.0 ± 337.0
    Diacetyl89.4 ± 34.061.1 ± 16.856.2 ± 0.150.0 ± 7.152.7 ± 9.069.1 ± 25.170.1 ± 3.075.0 ± 39.396.9 ± 24.987.2 ± 4.7165.6 ± 38.8
Sulfide
    Dimethyl disulfide1.8 ± 0.80.9 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.09.7 ± 6.24.9 ± 4.14.6 ± 1.82.8 ± 1.84.4 ± 0.78.6 ± 4.82.9 ± 1.91.1 ± 0.2
Volatile acids
    2-Methylbutanoic acid77.6 ± 5.551.0 ± 20.447.0 ± 2.645.3 ± 5.858.6 ± 22.983.5 ± 21.761.3 ± 43.957.2 ± 17.658.6 ± 5.181.2 ± 1.078.6 ± 31.2
    Acetic acid10,163.4 ± 882.010,696.5 ± 1,780.19,383.5 ± 1,627.17,062.3 ± 2,066.66,264.2 ± 462.07,710.1 ± 190.79,374.9 ± 1,153.95,058.7 ± 567.45,181.7 ± 1,666.911,565.8 ± 2,901.19,346.5 ± 206.4
    Butanoic acid9.7 ± 0.07.7 ± 1.46.8 ± 1.58.7 ± 2.86.6 ± 0.110.5 ± 0.512.5 ± 1.86.6 ± 1.318.2 ± 7.79.7 ± 2.116.4 ± 2.7
    Isobutyric acid148.2 ± 9.5119.7 ± 42.999.4 ± 5.1140.5 ± 20.9193.9 ± 69.7295.2 ± 65.3211.2 ± 105.2243.9 ± 55.6242.2 ± 66.9390.5 ± 11.7435.0 ± 117.9
    Isovaleric acid253.2 ± 102.3204.1 ± 77.4148.4 ± 21.0201.5 ± 61.0265.1 ± 113.1306.8 ± 67.6268.3 ± 100.2186.9 ± 5.3161.6 ± 49.2246.5 ± 16.6279.6 ± 27.5
    Propanoic acid62.4 ± 22.240.5 ± 3.738.4 ± 5.444.1 ± 17.738.9 ± 2.653.0 ± 0.161.7 ± 20.833.2 ± 0.343.5 ± 4.534.5 ± 3.648.9 ± 1.1
  • a Two spontaneous (S) and 20 inoculated fermentations were performed, with 10 yeast strains tested in duplicate. Cocoa liquors were made separately from all fermentations, and the values represent the average concentrations ± SD of fermentation duplicates.